principalities or cities. Many were described generically, sometimes by vernacular words such as ‘Almain’ (which carry the general connotation of ‘German’) and ‘Easterling’ (which often denoted people from the Hanseatic cities, whether in Germany or in other parts of the Baltic shore). Most common of all was the catch-all term ‘Dutch’. ‘Dutch’, which is a modern rendering of the MiddleEnglish (and Anglo-Norman) word ‘Duche’ or ‘Doche’, was primarily a linguistic descriptor, referring to the dialects now known as Middle Dutch and Middle Low German. It was thus also widely
necromancy, having plotted to kill the king and his lords with a poisonous ointment, suggests this technique enjoyed some contemporary success.
88 British Library, London (hereafter Brit. Lib.), Cotton MS Vespasian F VII, fo. 94 (‘illud fatuum … illud ydolum’); Original Letters , 1st ser., ed. Ellis, i, 2 (‘the mawmet’); Rot. Parl ., iii, 584 (‘celuy fool’), iv, 65 (‘ideotam’); Select Cases , ed. Sayles, vii, 211 (‘ut falsa ficta persona’).
89 MiddleEnglish Dictionary , ed. Sherman M. Kuhn and John Reidy (Ann Arbor, 1956–), s.v. ‘maume’; and note the
influential in many more recent analyses: e.g., Vauchez, La sainteté , p. 200; Saints and their Cults , S. Wilson (ed.) (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 34–5; J. R. Bray, ‘Concepts of Sainthood in Fourteenth-Century England’, B.J.R.L . LXVI (1983), p. 68; R. N. Swanson, Church and Society in Late Medieval England (Oxford, 1989), pp. 99–101, 288.
21 J. W. McKenna, ‘Popular Canonization as Political Propaganda: the Cult of Archbishop Scrope’, Speculum , XLV (1970), pp. 608–23 (quotation at p. 609); idem, ‘Piety and Propaganda: the Cult of Henry VI’, Chaucer and Middle
’. Finally writers and readers were aware
of literary immortality. The fifteenth-century humanist Aurelio
Brandolini wrote, ‘Do not Plato and Aristotle … seem to be
alive today … whose doctrine and fame fill the whole
For a select few, fame could triumph over death.
In the MiddleEnglish Book of
vices and virtues it is
argued for the moral primacy of defending the patria: ‘a
man’s truly valiant who defends his own inheritance; no castle
stormed, no battle in the field can equal this’.52 Soon, national
holy war competed with crusading for more than men or money;
it secured the enthusiasm of national churches and provided a
new source of glorious chivalric anecdotes. The Arthur of
Geoffrey of Monmouth in the 1130s was a sort of crusader
against pagan Saxons; the Arthur of the fourteenth-century
MiddleEnglish poem Morte d’Arthur was a sort of an Edward III,
hammer of the French.53
in La estoire de seint Aedward le rei ’, in Juliana Dresvina and Nicholas Sparks (eds), Authority and Gender in Medieval and Renaissance Chronicles ( Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing , 2012 ), pp. 121 – 39 .
10 Matthew Paris: The History of Saint Edward the King , p. 106, n. lxviii. See also Dresvina and Sparks, Authority and Gender , p. 135.
11 Thomas of Castleford, Chronicle , in An Old and MiddleEnglish Anthology , edited by Rolf Kaiser, third edition (Berlin: Berlin-Wilmersdorf, 1958), pp. 364–5, lines 31925–6, 31935
90–2, 94, 101 ]. 133 At the same time, an array of
clerical witnesses testified that the real sexual threat during the
Rouen trial came from the guards, and even an unidentified English lord
who had threatened to rape Joan [ 98 ]. 134 The only source to question
Joan’s virginity with any conviction was a MiddleEnglish
Continuation of the Prose Brut , written between 1464 and 1470:
meaning a disreputable woman. While the spellings ‘queen’ and ‘quean’ were
used interchangeably in the first half of the twentieth century, Houlbrook
followed Eric Partridge’s Dictionary of the Underworld (Wordsworth, 1995),
pp. 545–549, and used ‘quean’ as the standard spelling in his book Queer
75 Weeks, The World We Have Won, p. 47; Houlbrook, Queer London,
76 Cook, A Gay History of Britain, p. 167.
77 Alfred Kinsey, Warren Pomeroy and Clyde Martin, Sexual Behaviour in the
Human Male (Philadelphia, 1948).
’s will was
published in translation in 1788; and his translation of Boethius in 1829.
The remaining documents all appeared in translation as part of J.A. Giles’s
definitive 1852 edition, The Whole Works of King Alfred the Great – along
with several texts that had little to do with the king, such as the misnamed
MiddleEnglish poem, The Proverbs of Alfred.
The eleventh to thirteenth centuries
The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries seem to have seen a modest
renaissance of interest in Alfred – perhaps owing to an anxiety to forge
a legitimate ancestry for Anglo
persons destitute from birth of either sense, the blind are more intelligent than the deaf and dumb.’ 3 This was repeated in De proprietatibus rerum by Bartholomaeus Anglicus, written probably during his time at the Dominican convent in Magdeburg during the 1240s, which was the first modern-style encyclopaedia, with alphabetical entries, and a perennial best seller not just during the later medieval period, but also well into the early modern. The original Latin was translated into MiddleEnglish by John Trevisa in 1397 as On the Properties of Things. Hearing is