et Martin, Les Egarés) and especially Michèle Moretti,
whose collaboration with Téchiné goes as far back as Marc’O’s theatre
group in the 1960s (Paulina s’en va, Souvenirs d’en France, Rendez-vous,
J’embrasse pas, Ma Saison préférée, Les Roseaux sauvages).
Téchiné always writes his own screenplays, but always in collaboration with at least one other. He has worked regularly with two former
Cahiers critics who are now ﬁlm directors: Pascal Bonitzer (Les Sœurs
Brontë, Le Lieu du crime, Les Innocents, Ma Saison préférée, Les Temps
qui changent), who has also done
Daily Worker, 2 June 1930, p. 4.
10 Workers’ Weekly, 20 June 1924, p. 6.
11 Workers’ Weekly, 14 December 1923, p. 2.
12 The Communist, 27 January 1923, p. 8.
13 Workers’ Weekly, 25 July 1924, p. 2. See also, Workers’ Weekly, 11 August 1923, p. 2.
14 Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital, in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works in One
Volume (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1968), p. 93.
15 Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1 (Harmondsworth: Penguin,
1976), p. 342.
16 Ibid., p.367.
17 Franco Moretti, Signs Taken For Wonders: Essays in the
equality of the sexes and mature love are possible. The
archetypal Cinderella plot, which jane’s story has also been
read as (e.g., Moretti 1987 , 185–9), is effectively discarded by gothic
excess and this version of escape. Her female success story relies
on a strong vision of gender equality, which ultimately requires the
destruction of Thornfield, Rochester’s dependency and
, and between film-making and resistance.
Although reference will be made throughout this study to the various scholarly and popular critical sources that discuss Garrel’s work, it is instructive at this point to review some of the key publications that have engaged with specific films, periods or tendencies within Garrel’s career. In comparison with other film-makers of a similar generation and output (for example, Chantal Akerman, Wim Wenders or Nanni Moretti), writing on Garrel’s cinema remains limited and fragmentary. Critical responses to
supernatural ability to transmute
base metal into gold. 88
The legend provided anti-Semites with a convenient analogy for how they
saw Jews manipulating the wealth of the world ( Figure
8 ). In monetary terms, the threat of Dracula reverts back to
‘the tyranny of feudal monopoly’, which, as Franco Moretti
explains, threatens the circulation of capital in a free British
homegrown heroes.61 Recall the scene from Nanni
Moretti’s film Aprile (1998): when Silvio Berlusconi wins the election, the 25
April memorial celebrations suddenly gain real relevance. The nation, as Emilio
Gentile reminds us in La grande Italia, only came back into view in the mid-
1990s.62 Berlusconi’s ascent to power in 1994 and the subsequent renewed interest
in Fascist strategies for suppressing dissent –and their contemporary correlatives –
changed the national discourse about internal exile yet again, offering a new
declension of the legacy of Fascism and an
, writing and
acting locate her firmly within her generation of French filmmakers,
wider comparisons with the profiles of a wider range of contemporary
directors of accessible and self-reflexive tragicomedies including Nanni
Moretti and Pedro Almodóvar are justified. Her films address the
fragile construction of personal and social identities through the
singular combination of multilayered intertextual
Bouchez), the daughter of Communist schoolteacher Mme Alvarez
(Michèle Moretti) has a non-sexual friendship with François (Gaël
Morel), who lives for literature and cinema and who has a one-night
branlette/wank with fellow-boarder and peasant son Serge (Stéphane
Rideau). It is the Algerian war which acts as catalyst for the transformations that follow. Serge’s brother Pierre (Eric Kreikenmayer),
who had asked Mme Alvarez to help him desert, is killed there by the
OAS. An older student, Henri (Frédéric Gorny), is a repatriated and
families and sexualities
Carothers, 21 September 1948.
See, for example, the case files of Allesandro
Moretti, MMH: EU.M.34/41; Umberto Pagano, MMH: EU.M.54/42; Vicenzio
Pinto, MMH: EU.M.40/41; Giuseppe Bartolini, MMH: EU.M.37/41.
McCulloch based his analysis on records
borrowing from Balzac) glimpsed through the
character Renaud (Alain Libolt), there are a number of other groups and
alternative communities dispersed across Out 1 . Most prominent are
the experimental theatre troupes led by Thomas (Michael Lonsdale) and Lili
(Michèle Moretti), two members of the Thirteen, whose exercises and
rehearsals take up much of the screen time of Out 1 ,