homegrown heroes.61 Recall the scene from Nanni
Moretti’s film Aprile (1998): when Silvio Berlusconi wins the election, the 25
April memorial celebrations suddenly gain real relevance. The nation, as Emilio
Gentile reminds us in La grande Italia, only came back into view in the mid-
1990s.62 Berlusconi’s ascent to power in 1994 and the subsequent renewed interest
in Fascist strategies for suppressing dissent –and their contemporary correlatives –
changed the national discourse about internal exile yet again, offering a new
declension of the legacy of Fascism and an
, writing and
acting locate her firmly within her generation of French filmmakers,
wider comparisons with the profiles of a wider range of contemporary
directors of accessible and self-reflexive tragicomedies including Nanni
Moretti and Pedro Almodóvar are justified. Her films address the
fragile construction of personal and social identities through the
singular combination of multilayered intertextual
Bouchez), the daughter of Communist schoolteacher Mme Alvarez
(Michèle Moretti) has a non-sexual friendship with François (Gaël
Morel), who lives for literature and cinema and who has a one-night
branlette/wank with fellow-boarder and peasant son Serge (Stéphane
Rideau). It is the Algerian war which acts as catalyst for the transformations that follow. Serge’s brother Pierre (Eric Kreikenmayer),
who had asked Mme Alvarez to help him desert, is killed there by the
OAS. An older student, Henri (Frédéric Gorny), is a repatriated and
families and sexualities
Carothers, 21 September 1948.
See, for example, the case files of Allesandro
Moretti, MMH: EU.M.34/41; Umberto Pagano, MMH: EU.M.54/42; Vicenzio
Pinto, MMH: EU.M.40/41; Giuseppe Bartolini, MMH: EU.M.37/41.
McCulloch based his analysis on records
borrowing from Balzac) glimpsed through the
character Renaud (Alain Libolt), there are a number of other groups and
alternative communities dispersed across Out 1 . Most prominent are
the experimental theatre troupes led by Thomas (Michael Lonsdale) and Lili
(Michèle Moretti), two members of the Thirteen, whose exercises and
rehearsals take up much of the screen time of Out 1 ,
In Out 1 , however, all the connotations of jeu ,
without exception, do seem to come together for the first time. In its
original conception, the film had scarcely any preconceived limits; the
narrative thread was of the thinnest, and largely imported by the different
actors, some (Michel Lonsdale, Michèle Moretti) to continue work
already begun in other contexts. Some came with a character prepared, some
to anyone else – about what is really going on in his life,
incapable even, as Michèle (Michèle Moretti) remarks, of
externalising his feelings in the play. His mute impotence is most memorably
demonstrated in the scene in which, as Claire suggests they need to spend
some time apart, Sébastien takes a razor blade and begins slicing and
slashing at his clothes. The extraordinary, hyperrealist soundtrack of
78 Burigozzo 1842, p. 524; Gamba 1956, pp. 241–2.
79 Vitale 1970: 273–4; Canons and Decrees ed. Schroeder 1941, pp. 228–9, 496.
80 S. Cohen 1992, pp. 88–9.
81 Schutte 2010: 400–3.
82 Gamba 1956, p. 249.
83 Gamba 1956, p. 254; Vitale 1970: 287–8.
84 Vitale 1970: 273–91.
85 Canosa and Colonnello 1989, p. 119.
86 Borromeo 1756, pp. 52–4.
87 McGough 2011, p. 117.
88 Intra 1893: 103–7; Tassini ed. Moretti 1964, p. 184; Laven 2004, pp. 161–5, 236, n. 11.
P e n i t e n t si n n e r s
89 Mazzi 1991, p. 398; S. Cohen 1992, pp. 61–2, 64
1989, p. 135, n. 8.
60 Galanti 1786–90, II, pp. 29–30; cf. De Spirito 1978: 40–1.
61 Pavan 1980: 250–5; Ruggiero 1993, pp. 48–9; Chojnacka 2001, pp. 23–4, 54; Scarabello
62 Scarabello 2004: 91–2, 100.
63 Canosa 1993, pp. 227–9; also Gozzi ed. Zardi 1915, p. 414 and Tassini ed. Moretti 1964,
64 Brackett 1993: 299–300.
65 Ferrante in Ciammitti et al. 1980, pp. 455–8; Ferrante 1985, pp. 7, 12, 16; Canosa and Colonnello
1989, pp. 79–87, 90.
66 Canosa and Colonnello 1989, pp. 78–9.
67 Dall’Olio 1999: 153–204.
68 Ferrante in Ciammitti et
Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 1–49, 171–9; J. Rose, The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes (New Haven: Yale University Press,
2002), pp. 93–106.
L. J. Ellicott, Historical Lectures on the Life of our Lord [Hulsean Lectures
1859] (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, 1865), p. 42.
Franco Moretti, The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European
Culture (London: Verso, 1987).
Strauss, Life of Jesus, pp. 777–81.
A. Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus  (London: Adam and
Charles Black, 1948), p. 96.