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ACT’s procedures of ‘pure creation’, 1993–96

, humanitarian problems stemming from the earthquake in the northern regions and the start of mass emigration to the USA, Western Europe and Russia. But this was also a time of hope, since it saw the construction of a new independent state and the institutionalization of the ideas of citizenship, democracy and free speech – all fused with the hopes and sentiments of a ‘national liberation’ obstructed during the seventy years of ‘the communist experiment’, as it was often described. At least, thus spoke the dominant historical narrative of official culture. The collapse of the

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde

turned away at the same ports that provided safe-harbor to Irish emigrants a century earlier. Secondly, the St. Louis, having ‘crossed the Atlantic to be refused’ entry, calls to mind the Famine ships that had lain in quarantine outside Grosse Île in the St. Lawrence River in Canada. During the Famine, mass evictions of penniless tenants from equally destitute estates resulted in mass emigration from Ireland to Grosse Île. Often, landlords paid for their tenants’ passage to Britain and North America because sending them overseas on poorly built, and under

in Haunted historiographies

eroded because these teachers did not speak the language and so did not teach it; only one was classed as bilingual by census officials.94 It is worth pointing out, however, that many of the teachers were appointed with the support of locals who, although they felt strongly about protecting Gaelic, recognised that there were few alternative options for a region still struggling to recover from the mass emigration that had taken place earlier in the century. Irish Catholic culture was specifically targeted and at Mount Pleasant trainee teachers were told to deal ‘firmly

in Creating a Scottish Church

in 1918. Although professional agents had played a part in shaping emigrants’ decisions since the early days of mass emigration, it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that they became an integral and ubiquitous component of the recruitment process. As a variety of states, dominions and provinces competed for agriculturists, domestic servants and, of course, settlers with capital, increasingly sophisticated techniques and incentives were employed to entice the undecided emigrant. Scotland, like the

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars

demands on the country’s manpower and material resources. The isolation of thousands of South Africans was broken by their experiences abroad as members of the armed forces. By the end of 1945, when a devastated Europe was ready for renewed mass emigration on a large scale, the Union was also prepared economically, politically and psychologically for the inception of an immigration scheme which would go

in Emigrants and empire
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Arnold White and the parochial view of imperial citizenship

members could lead to resentment in the dominions and cracks in imperial solidarity. Furthermore, he was disappointed that successive governments showed only limited interest in administering mass emigration undertakings. The State had failed in its required role as imperial manager, leaving it to private individuals to take up the task of assisted emigration. Though he still

in Imperial citizenship
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Crossing the seas

need to take into account the collective experiences of early, mass emigration, from 1948 and through the following decade. The consequences of this experience of emigration were not confined to formally accredited intellectuals, to the poets and novelists alone. Decoding British culture came to be the necessary pastime of all who journeyed across the seas. The extent of the great postwar migration

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

’s advocacy of planned or systematic colonisation, in which the moral character of the emigrant communities was strongly emphasised, may also have played a role in encouraging the churches to play a more active part in the emigration process. While, initially, the churches were concerned only with providing spiritual comforts to emigrants in transit, the scale of mass emigration soon led to more ambitious plans

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
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desperate urge to get away. Only the great crisis in food supply could have quickly worked this revolution in heart and mind and, at the same time, made landlord, philanthropic and government funds available to support mass emigration. The famine induced movement from all over the Highland region but it is important to recognise that its effects varied significantly between different areas and social groups. The epicentre of the disaster was the western mainland, and especially the Hebrides, the very heart of crofting society. The southern, central and eastern Highlands

in Clanship to crofters’ war
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The story of a voice

quest for security and comfort. She decries the intensifying cult of celebrity in the music industry. There is little direct allusion to the economic crisis. But local conditions, such as the recession and the return of mass emigration, along with personal factors such as the apparent 72 Five Irish Women break-up of O’Connor’s once stable domestic settlement with her children, may have contributed to the renewed problematisation of ‘home’ explored on both albums. (‘Home’ was in fact the original title of How about I be me – although as one of the song titles has

in Five Irish women