This book explores the experiences and contributions of British women performing various kinds of active service across the Eastern Front in Serbia, Russia and Romania during the First World War. The book is roughly chronological, but also examines related themes such as gender, nationality and legacy. Upon the outbreak of the War in 1914, rejected by the British military, surprising numbers of British women went to work for the allied armies in the East. The book considers their experiences before and after the fall of Serbia in 1915. Other women were caught in Russia and remained there to offer service. Later, women’s Units moved further East from Serbia to work on the Romanian and Russian Fronts, only to be caught up in revolution. This book explores their many experiences and achievements, within an appropriate historical and cultural context and interprets their own words by examining the many and varied written records they left behind. Women such as Dr Elsie Inglis, Mabel St Clair Stobart, Flora Sandes and Florence Farmborough are studied alongside many others whose diaries, letters, memoirs and journalism help to shape the extraordinary role played by British women in the East and their subsequent legacy.
This book focuses on the drama and poetry published since 1990. It also reflects upon related forms of creative work in this period, including film and the visual and performing arts. The book discusses some of the most topical issues which have emerged in Irish theatre since 1990. It traces the significance of the home in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke. The book also focuses on the reconfigurations of identity, and the complex intersections of nationality, gender and race in contemporary Ireland. It shows how Roddy Doyle's return to the repressed gives articulation to those left behind by globalisation. The book then examines the ways in which post-Agreement Northern fiction negotiates its bitter legacies. It also examines how the activity of creating art in a time of violence brings about an anxiety regarding the artist's role, and how it calls into question the ability to re-present atrocity. The book further explores the consideration of politics and ethics in Irish drama since 1990. It talks about the swirling abundance of themes and trends in contemporary Irish fiction and autobiography. The book shows that writing in the Irish Republic and in the North has begun to accommodate an increasing diversity of voices which address themselves not only to issues preoccupying their local audiences, but also to wider geopolitical concerns.
The stereotype of the forward, sexually precocious female botanist made its first appearance in literature in the turbulent revolutionary climate of the 1790s. The emergence of this figure illustrates both the contemporary appeal, particularly to women, of the Linnaean Sexual System of botanical classification, and the anxieties surrounding female modesty that it provoked. This book explores the cultivation of the female mind and the feminised discourse of botanical literature in eighteenth-century Britain. In particular, it discusses British women's engagement with the Swedish botanist, Carl Linnaeus, and his unsettling discovery of plant sexuality. The book also explores nationality and sexuality debates in relation to botany and charts the appearance of a new literary stereotype, the sexually precocious female botanist. It investigates the cultivation of the female mind and its implications for the theories of the feminised discourse of botanical literature. The book also investigates a process of feminisation of botany in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's and Priscilla Wakefield's letters on botany; these were literary and educational texts addressed specifically to women. Linnaean classification exemplified order, making botany an ideal discipline for young British women in the eighteenth century. Erasmus Darwin's explicit discussion of sexuality related to the aura of illicit sexuality that had surrounded Sir Joseph Banks. Richard Polwhele appropriates Collinsonia's image of the promiscuous female to allude to Mary Wollstonecraft's sexuality, drawing on forward plants in Darwin and Thomas Mathias. The book finally looks at early nineteenth-century debates and demonstrates how scientific botany came into conflict with the craft of floristry.
Immigrant England, 1300–1550 provides a comprehensive account of the identities,
nationalities, occupations, families and experiences of first-generation
immigrants to England during the later Middle Ages. It addresses both official
policy and public responses to immigration in the age of the Black Death, the
Hundred Years War and the early Tudor monarchy, revealing how dramatic changes
in the English economy fundamentally affected the levels of tolerance and
discrimination allowed to immigrants. Drawing on data unique in Europe
before the nineteenth century, the book provides both a quantitative analysis of
immigrants and a qualitative assessment of the reception that these incomers
received from English society at large. Accounting for 1 per cent or more of the
population of England in the fifteenth century and coming from all parts of
Europe and beyond, immigrants spread out over the kingdom, settling in the
countryside as well as in towns, and in a multitude of occupations from
agricultural labourers to skilled craftspeople and professionals. Often
encouraged and welcomed, sometimes vilified and victimised, immigrants were
always on the social and political agenda in late medieval England.
(B)ordering Britain argues that Britain is the spoils of empire, its immigration law is colonial violence and irregular immigration is anti-colonial resistance. In announcing itself as post-colonial through immigration and nationality laws passed in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, Britain cut itself off symbolically and physically from its colonies and the Commonwealth, taking with it what it had plundered. This imperial vanishing act cast Britain’s colonial history into the shadows. The British Empire, about which Britons know little, can be remembered fondly as a moment of past glory, as a gift once given to the world. Meanwhile immigration laws are justified on the basis that they keep the undeserving hordes out. In fact, immigration laws are acts of colonial seizure and violence. They obstruct the vast majority of racialised people from accessing wealth amassed in the course of colonial conquest. Regardless of what the law, media and political discourse dictate, people with personal, ancestral or geographical links to colonialism, or those existing under the weight of its legacy of race and racism, have every right to come to Britain and take back what is theirs.
Matthew Buck on the treatment of
Belgian refugees in 1939–40 confirms these findings,13 as does an
examination of the reception of the French. At best, British plans for
the welcoming of refugees of all nationalities in 1940 were tardy, illconceived, lacking in goodwill and badly implemented.
These preparations had begun reluctantly in 1936 when mounting
international tension concentrated government minds on the possibility of a general European war. Given the experiences of the First World
War, it was widely appreciated that any handling of refugees could not
still in the town of Vrinjatcha Bania when it fell
to the Austrians on 10th November 1915. They were only 50 miles
away from their colleagues, Inglis’ unit, in Krushevatz, but all lines of
communication had been severed. Making use of both her nationality
and her civilian status, Hutchison was quite determined to stand up
to her captors. When the Austrian army commandeered all her hospital equipment before sending her on to Krushevatz, she refused to
give it up without a receipt, insisting that after the war the Austrian
government would be required to pay for it all
In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.
nationality laws or as a result of less explicit but
equally obstructive barriers such as exclusion from the types of profession
which constitute the pool of political office holders, or discrimination on the
part of party selectors.We can therefore expect to find them excluded from
mainstream politics for the same reasons as other non-nationals and/or for
the same reasons as other women. However, this does not mean that refugee
women in Britain and France are politically inactive, as this chapter shows,
by taking as an example their participation in NGOs.
mythologies that govern our ideas of selfhood
and that strengthen or resist norms of gender, race, class, nationality
Each of the chapters in this volume features one woman writer
whose published life narrative(s) challenged standards of morality,
likability and/or literary convention, with irrevocable effects for
her reputation either in her life or ‘afterlife’. These texts offered
unprecedented access to the personal lives of their subjects,
inviting readers to learn intimate details about these women and
to identify with them in new ways. In doing so, they