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Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities
Sabine Lee

rape in Rwanda4 among others are suggestive of mass sexualised violence and children fathered by foreign soldiers as a phenomenon of the twentieth century. However, intimate contacts between foreign soldiers and local civilians, both coercive and consensual, are likely to have been a feature of almost all wars, from antiquity5 into modernity; in the middle ages, the Vikings had a reputation for bravery as much as for pillage and rape, as did Genghis Khan and his Mongol soldiers;6 similarly, during the crusades it was customary for kings to enlist women to provide

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
An introduction
Sabine Lee

serving as a starting point for this study of CBOW in the twentieth century. Beyond the life courses of the children themselves, and beyond giving them a voice to explain their experiences as children of foreign – and often absent – fathers in volatile postconflict situations, focal points of the analysis will be the responses of others to the children whose mere existence frequently creates personal, familial, societal, cultural and political problems in what are often very unsettled postconflict communities and states. In the early twenty-first century, children

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
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Jobs, families, mobilities and social identities
Ben Jones

‘ordinariness’ was fundamental to individuals’ social positioning and that identifications based upon ‘feeling ordinary’ extended well beyond the work place to encompass the material and JONES WORKING CLASS PRINT.indd 27 03/05/2012 10:31 28 The working class in mid-twentieth-century England emotional experiences of home and neighbourhood. The remainder of the book looks at the experiences, memories and meanings attached to these sites and social institutions. I begin this chapter, however, by examining narratives of working class ‘decline’ and interrogating the idea that

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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The children of the Vietnam War
Sabine Lee

, and Vietnam is the place.’8 After the dramatic events in November 1963 which saw the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem ousted in an American-approved coup, 114 CBOW in the twentieth century with Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu murdered and President Kennedy assassinated, a notable change in US commitment in Vietnam was symbolised by the new President Lyndon B. Johnson. A product of the Cold War who accepted whole-heartedly the domino theory, President Johnson was convinced that if Vietnam fell to communism, so would – eventually – America’s more

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Tom Woodin

12 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century 1  Sources of radicalism In the 1970s, the idea of working-class writing flared up in the collective imagination. Local areas became sources of creativity that connected to a much wider movement. The local was conceived as both a geographical and a political space that was ripe with democratic potential. Writing and publishing workshops were part of a more general set of social movements, intellectual trends and traditions. They had roots in debates on education, culture, class and the

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
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Children born of war: lessons learnt?
Sabine Lee

CBOW in the twentieth century soldiers’ departures when long-term liaisons became known or, even more significantly, if soldiers were known to have caused pregnancies. As a rule, national governments did not accept responsibilities for their soldiers’ conduct and, as a rule, they did not accept the consequences by way of supporting their soldiers’ illegitimate children or those children’s mothers. Historically, some notable exceptions to this general pattern existed. The French, as explored in the case of the Second World War and mentioned in the context of Vietnam

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Critical pedagogy in the community
Tom Woodin

142 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century 8 Chuck out the teacher: critical pedagogy in the community Writing and publishing workshops contested the processes and forms of organisation. The democratisation of writing and publishing was one element in a radical vision of social change. A great deal of discussion and work went into the development of alternative structures as a means of building solidarity with local people. Ends and means were interrelated and process was seen to have major implications for product. For example

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
Tom Woodin

critics presented as ubiquitous across comprehensive education. 36 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century Let it flow, Joe! Stepney Words was published in a burst of excitement that is evident in the opening poem, ‘Let it Flow, Joe!’: Let it flow, Joe. Let your feelings speak for you Let the people know what you know Tell the people what it’s all about Shout it out. … Paul Ritchens4 The spontaneity and urgency of the writing opened doors for others. Yet the enthusiasm was blended with feelings of desolation and lack of self

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
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Neighbours, networks and social memory
Ben Jones

Chapter 4 Community: neighbours, networks and social memory We saw in the last chapter the ways in which working class neighbourhoods were materially and discursively recast in the mid-twentieth century. Particularly powerful was an official discourse which categorised neighbourhoods as ‘slums’, and we analysed the degrees to which this category was adopted, adapted and resisted by residents of neighbourhoods subject to slum clearance. We also saw how these stigmatising representations of place were remapped onto some council estates and how some residents used

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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Sabine Lee

twentieth century Figure 6.1  Map of Rwanda and neighbouring countries in earlier chapters, the situation of the CBOW shows similarities, in particular with regard to the politics and policies of identity and their impact on the life courses and experiences of the children. The Rwandan genocide The Rwandan genocide of 1994 was one of the most brutal acts of premeditated and state-sponsored murder ever committed. The country, the landlocked ‘land of thousands hills’ bordered by Uganda in the north, Tanzania in the East, Burundi in the South and the DRC in the West covers

in Children born of war in the twentieth century