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.html (accessed 5 January 2015). 4 See for instance, J. Burke, Al Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam (London: Penguin, 2004 ); L. Wright, The Looming Towers: Al Qaeda’s Road to 9/11 (London: Penguin, 2006 ); M. Beardon, ‘Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires’, Foreign Affairs, 80:6 ( 2001 ), pp. 17–30; P. Todd, J. Bloch and P

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
New threats, institutional adaptations

geoeconomic significance in the twenty-first century. These areas’ importance is linked to their pivotal geographical position as a nexus between the Atlantic security zone and the Middle East and Asia and as potential buffers or transit points between the Islamic Middle East and Christian Europe. Central Asia will play an especially critical role as an alternative source of energy supply for Europe and Northeast Asia, will either help repair or deepen the environmental distress occasioned by climatic change, will serve either as a sanctuary for terrorism against the West

in Limiting institutions?
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Excerpts from key US speeches before the war in Iraq

Excerpts from President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, January 29, 2002 Our military has put the terror training camps of Afghanistan out of business, yet camps still exist in at least a dozen countries. A terrorist underworld—including groups like Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, Jaish-i-Mohammed—operates in remote jungles and deserts, and hides

in Intelligence and national security policymaking on Iraq

guaranteed, but based on contextualised political construction – how can the taboo be upheld so absolutely, to the exclusion of all other forms of violence? Events in Syria add weight to this argument. The hideous atrocities of the conflict are widely known, not only those carried out by the Assad regime, but also those by the opposition and the Islamic extremist organisations that have

in Syria and the chemical weapons taboo
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. Indeed, the Jewish–Palestinian dichotomy was translated to a hierarchy of rulers and ruled, as Peretz observed: No Arabs were designated as officials in charge of Arab affairs in the various ministries. Rather responsibility for such matters, even in ministries unrelated to security such as social welfare, agriculture, health and education, and the like, were entrusted to Jewish employees. (1991:98) The level of absurdity this racial hierarchy reached was apparent when a Jew was appointed as the head of the Islamic religious administration; Muslims cynically referred

in Thorough surveillance
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Palestinians: Five months ago we built a main street in Haifa, which had to pass through an Arab [Islamic] cemetery. We brought the Arab community to accept the removal of graves and eighty bags of bones are still until today overstuffed in the mosque because our men are not ready to designate a piece of land where these bones can be buried. There are examples of hundreds of cases of discrimination and brutality. (The Secretariat’s Meeting with MKs, 9 July 1950:7/2) He also highlighted various draconian laws which were passed and aimed to take over Palestinians’ property

in Thorough surveillance

narratives in international politics Overall the narrative which links al-Qaeda terrorism and the rebellion in Libya and constitutes the rebels as ‘radical Islamic fighters’,234 ‘jihadist elements’235 or ‘local al-Qaeda gunman’236 remains fairly marginal.237 When the media do mention the possibility of a terrorism link with the rebellion the relationship between rebel and terrorist is mainly based on either infiltration or exploitation. ‘The rebels are believed to have been infiltrated by al-Qaeda fighters, battle-hardened in Iraq and Afghanistan’238 or ‘Al

in Romantic narratives in international politics

Bosnian Muslims as ‘Islamic fundamentalists’, raising fears for the survival of the Serbian community in Bosnia. Croatian mythology paints the Croats as a single tribe, distinguished by their Catholicism and location as the ‘outer wall’ of Christian Europe’s defence against the early modern Ottomans. It also emphasises over a millennium of Croatian ‘statehood’, and as a result is ambivalent about the Ustashe interlude: as Franjo Tudjman put it, the Ustashe regime was simultaneously ‘a Fascist crime’ and an authentic expression of Croatian nationalist aspirations.23 The

in Limiting institutions?

not having to engage in developmental economic policies ( Islam and Odano, 2010 ). With the bitter experience of Japan’s imperial past reconciled, forgotten or deprioritised ( Takeda, 1992 ), up until the early 2000s, Japan’s relationship with ASEAN countries could be considered non-securitised ( Yang, 2003 ). This long-standing economic-focused relationship has shifted with two related changes in the region: China’s growing economic hegemony in the region and China’s military modernisation and expansion ( Reilly, 2016 ). Hand-in-hand with

in Japan's new security partnerships

this would become plausible. Ben-Gurion was referring to his theory, according to which Palestinian peasants are originally Jews who stayed in the country and converted to Islam during Islamic rule. He proposed to explore the plausibility of their return to Judaism. However, if this proved to be impossible, they should be brought as close as possible to Israeli Jews through acculturation. Fourth, the establishment of a Jewish–Arab organization, which would attract Palestinians and minimize the influence that the communist party had on them (ibid.:3–4). Unlike Ben

in Thorough surveillance