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Film theory’s foundation in medievalism

Western painting. It was redeemed from sin by Niepce and Lumière. In achieving the aims of baroque art, photography has freed the plastic arts from their obsession with likeness. 13 Medieval art here appears as radically different from modern art, and film as radically different yet again. The invention of photography by

in Medieval film
Alfred Hitchcock and Anthony Asquith

, also contained alternative strands which might be deemed ‘local or national’ in Higson and Maltby’s terms. There was a strong documentary element in British Instructional’s war reconstruction pictures such as The Battle of Jutland (1921), even before John Grierson began to influence British film in the late 1920s. There was also a vigorous and distinctive indigenous narrative cinema drawing upon the conventions of Victorian popular entertainment, theatre, painting and photography, from ‘a nineteenth-century past of popular visual narrational traditions’. 20

in British art cinema
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the UK. Such involvement only increases if Gilliam’s role as co-writer (with Englishman Tony Grisoni) on Fear and Loathing and (uncredited) on The Brothers Grimm is included. One could add the creative input from key British crew members on those films, including editors Lesley Walker and Mick Audsley, and director of photography Roger Pratt, who collectively have contributed to an array

in Terry Gilliam
Black Audio Film Collective and Latin America

-garde film than photography. As T. J. Demos details, however, Expeditions disrupts the purity of both forms, suggesting not so much hybridity as syncretism – another concept crucial to both Third Cinema and postcolonial studies. 16 Kobena Mercer utilises V. N. Volosinov’s notion of the internal dialectic to underscore the interventions that diasporic artists and film-makers enact in the field of language, both social and visual. The language of colonialism has, by its very nature, a double articulation that allows for subversion and

in British art cinema
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Anatomy of a metaphor

and destructive spirals. Visually, the stark black-and-white photography seemed to glamorise the blonde hero and heroine in such a way that the film was condemned for a pro-Nazi bias during the Occupation. Other film critics have also found noir elements in other genres. For instance, Raymond Durgnat offered a map of the way in which noir elements could be found across the spectrum of film genres

in Medieval film
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transgression – have become an intrinsic part of a specific stylistic approach, unrestricted by categorisations, genres and established conventions. Working in a team with a set of long-standing collaborators, technicians and actors, Denis creates hybrid works that draw on literature as well as dance, music, photography and painting – films that rely on the power of images and sound in themselves rather than on tightly scripted

in Claire Denis
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Winterbottom and a body of work

(1989), Cottrell Boyce first worked with Winterbottom on Forget about Me , prior to Revolution Films being set up. This production led to his being brought in by Winterbottom and Eaton to work on Butterfly Kiss , Welcome to Sarajevo , The Claim , 24 Hour Party People , Code 46 (2003) and A Cock and Bull Story (2006). Winterbottom has used three principal directors of photography across his features. These are Marcel

in Michael Winterbottom
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which are not based on crime literature, but which contain elements recognisable as noir: urban dramas with contrasted black and white photography, pessimistic narratives, troubled male heroes trapped by their past and/or a woman: in particular 1930s Poetic Realist films and ‘social noir’ films of the 1940s and 1950s. Following Michael Walker’s useful reminder that in film noir ‘tone is crucial’ and ‘visual style must work in

in European film noir

the director and Hanbury the producer, but that still leaves unclear the nature of Greenbaum’s involvement, as the accredited director of photography is Guy Green. The latter said in 1992 that the film was ‘photographed’ by Greenbaum, that he – Green – was camera operator and that he remembered ‘Lance Comfort was very keen on directing with a wide-angle lens, a 28 or something like that’. 28 In any case

in Lance Comfort
Uncivilised topographies in Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights

lavish photography of the landscape is a repeated motif throughout Howards End and this pastoral presentation offers a nostalgic reconstruction of an imperial and post-​colonial past,14 enabling the spectator to witness an invented ‘golden age, one that the novels depict as already tainted and unstable’.15 Many of the films appeared during the Thatcher years in Britain, a period that arguably denied cultural difference, instead wistfully harking back to what might be perceived as better times. These films, along with a rapid development of a museum and heritage culture

in British rural landscapes on film