elections, the government of Turkey’s Prime Minister, Bulent Ecevit, launched an anti-torture reform campaign. 8 Many Europeans, particularly those on the left who are influential in EU governments, feel goodwill toward Ecevit, who is considered to be “clean” when it comes to corruption issues, and who believes in social democrat ideas. Before he entered parliament as an Ankara deputy and becoming a politician (1959), Ecevit has been a pioneer of labor rights in his country. He has also been an English translator who studied art, history, Bengali and Sanskrit at London
murderers, rapists and thieves.” 15 The celebrated Greek author, Nikos Kazantzakis, swore that for the Greeks freedom means purging themselves of the corrupt Turkish traits acquired under Ottoman rule. 16 The Greek Consul in Montreal took umbrage at a series of lectures held in a local university entitled: “Turkey: Two Millenniums of Art and History,” protesting that the Turkish nation “had settled in the region much later” and that most of the discoveries cited were a part of the Greek cultural heritage. 17
Pangalos’s sacking in February 1999
provide an accurate, up-to-date image
to allow automated remote sensing from space later. The next day, there was a
state-of-the-art US satellite passing over the crash site at the exact hour of the
downing, so this is not a possibility to be dismissed lightly. In addition, an offensive
from Amvrosievka to the south was launched to relieve the trapped ATO troops,
past Saur Mohyla on the Russian border (roughly to the right of the star in the figure
indicating where the plane came down). First, let us review which relevant air assets
were in place.
Air and anti
. However, it is arguable that ‘substantial’ should be read qualitatively as well as quantitatively, as, if those transferred or deported were the leaders or intellectuals of the population, it would disproportionately affect the population remaining in the occupied territory. 360
The mental element of this offence is not defined and therefore must be that of intention and knowledge as defined in Article 30 of the Rome Statute.
Article 8(2)(b)(ix) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes
Small Powers, 263.
296 “The North Atlantic Treaty,” North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949, www.
297 “Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Between the People’s
Republic of Albania, the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People’s
Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the
Rumanian People’s Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the
Czechoslovak Republic, May 14, 1955,” Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman
Law Library, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th
and asylum and
European police and judicial co-operation. These were labelled as ‘matters of
common interest’ (Art. K: 1 Treaty on European Union (TEU)).
It is important to note, given the Pillar’s future development, the distinction
between the first six ‘matters of common interest’ – asylum, immigration, external border co-operation, combating drug addiction, combating fraud on an international scale and judicial co-operation on civil matters – and the remaining
three, namely the dual processes of police and judicial co-operation on criminal
matters and customs co
permits information gathering on
a far wider scale than might initially be supposed. As well as being used to ‘store,
modify and utilise data’ on those ‘suspected of having committed or having taken
part in a criminal offence for which Europol is competent’ (Art. 8 (1a)), it was
given a secondary role to consider ‘persons who there are serious grounds for believing will commit’ such offences (Art. 8 (1b)). As well as contradicting the need
for there to be ‘factual indications’ of criminal activity before Europol could get
involved, such a remit is potentially much wider
-operation, it is
fair to say that the process of objective setting does not get off to the best of starts.
The initial objectives noted in the TEU are problematic in two areas, relating to
both ends and means. In the case of the former, there is little said in the initial
Third Pillar framework regarding the direction in which the member states are
supposed to be travelling. At this point, the only stated guide was the classification of its remit as ‘matters of common interest’ (Art. K: 1 TEU). However,
there is little information contained within the Treaty to define what
subjects, objects and means. Here the notion of claim-regarding acts and selfregarding acts will be explained more extensively. As a guide to the subsequent
empirical chapters and in response to a debate that places the complexity of
resistance in terms of its existence or not, violence or not, its oppositional nature
or not, the last section provides a reworked account of resistance, discussing
how some of its elements can be gradated to better grasp its complexities.
The art of theorising resistance
As already mentioned, the turn to resistance in the liberal
global. Whether resistance is exercised discursively, violently or, as will be
explored in this chapter, as a form of survival, it is conditioned by the way
authority is asserted along the axis of state absence and presence. Nonetheless,
in this interstice, solidarity, and not just coercion and extraction, is an important
element of the everyday political landscape.
Creativity, as the art of la débrouille,4 is defined here as the use of imagination, solidarity and reciprocity to produce anything that allows or improves
survival. Although a rumba song may have captured