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’, ‘citizenship’ and ‘human rights’ are contested in courtrooms, parliaments and the media, old historical certainties are challenged and new demands for a professionally active historical profession come to the fore. Law has never been a marginal player in imperialism: in some specific instances it has been legal codes alone that have created boundaries and empowered the enforcement of differentiation. 4

in Law, history, colonialism
The development of Indian identity in 1940s’ Durban

, and the subcontinent they left in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century was still a British colony, not yet the Indian nation. Despite these obstacles, from early on Indians began to generate a loose sense of community and a notion of Indianness that was partly negotiated through a continued relationship with India. In addition, early attempts to segregate Indians 3 and disenfranchise those entitled to vote also led to a loose sense of collective identity, as Indians had to foster an ethos of self

in Rethinking settler colonialism
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, appropriated and contested. In this context, subjects of empire provincialised the British Isles, centring the colonies in their political and cultural constructions of empire, Britishness, citizenship, and loyalty. The Victorian and Edwardian British Empire was a space of political imagination and cultural creativity where imperial politics and cultures were forged not only by colonial administrators and

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
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Fields of understanding and political action

imperial power was and is both constituted and resisted geographically. 2 As promised in the Introduction, the book has examined the spatial dynamics of power with respect to the contested regulation of sexuality, aiming to critique and contest Eurocentric accounts of the same. It is now time to take stock of the ways in which these questions have been answered, the extent to which the promise of geographical imagination has been realised in activism and can be applied to contemporary problems. Building on Manderson

in Sex, politics and empire

, the solid red on imperial maps belying the dizzying array of political identities which existed under the Union Jack. Some Britons believed this diversity spoke to the legitimacy of the nation’s imperial rule, and saw Empire as a vehicle of peace and progress. Others feared the loss of an Anglo-European cultural identity, and sought to reassert British values at the expense of indigenous local identities. Adherents

in Imperial citizenship
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including exchanges with other territories in the Empire and beyond. Rhetoric was stepped up in this transitional phase, though the process was contested since some members of legislative councils often lacked conviction in their value. Libraries usually seemed more useful and art galleries attracted a larger audience. Museums remained chronically underfunded, understaffed, and under-supplied with

in Museums and empire
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Mapping the contours of the British World

sophisticated notions of ‘Britishness’ as contested forms of identity. 16 As Stephen Constantine reminds us, practitioners of the British World are ‘emphasising the Britishness of Greater Britain, even in the self-governing Dominions’, where for so long the annals of earlier dominion historians ‘had opted to emphasise the historical roots of distinctive nation states’. 17 In a similar vein

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

them legally into British society provided opportunities for upwardly mobile visitors from the subcontinent. Equally important, the Indian encounter with institutions in the United Kingdom forced British officials to adapt their own national identity into an imperial context, one that competed with the tendency toward ethnically-based citizenship that was becoming increasingly

in ‘The better class’ of Indians
Unsettled identities, unstable monuments

unveiled by the Maori King Koroki in 1948. The park and monument complex, initiated during the period in which New Zealand shifted from mature colony to independent dominion (1907) in the British Empire, constitutes an aesthetic shaping that can be related to notions about putative national(ist) and regional(ist) settler-colonial identity, though not in straightforward or settled ways. It can be risky to take the behaviour and representations of an individual as an index of wider social phenomena, to conflate person and

in Rethinking settler colonialism
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Overlapping territories, intertwined histories

from a variety of perspectives, and this book brings together contributors from several disciplines, including imperial history, geography, cultural studies, literature and the history of art and design. Their essays consider a range of urban settings, including capital cities such as London, Paris and Rome, and other major European cities, including Glasgow, Marseilles and Seville. In some chapters a specific monument or exhibition provides the main focus; others explore the ways in which imperial identities were composed

in Imperial cities