Building on earlier work, this text combines theoretical perspectives with empirical work, to provide a comparative analysis of the electoral systems, party systems and governmental systems in the ethnic republics and regions of Russia. It also assesses the impact of these different institutional arrangements on democratization and federalism, moving the focus of research from the national level to the vitally important processes of institution building and democratization at the local level and to the study of federalism in Russia.
Political systems are shaped by the societies in which they function. For this reason, it is helpful to know something about the historical, geographical, social and economic settings against which they operate. It is also helpful to understand something of the values and ideas which have mattered and continue to matter to those who inhabit any individual country. This book examines the background factors that help to shape the way in which political life and processes operate in Britain and America. In particular, it examines the similarities and differences in the political culture of the countries. Constitutions describe the fundamental rules according to which states are governed, be they embodied in the law, customs or conventions. Liberties and rights are of especial concern in liberal democracies, which claim to provide a broad range of them. The book examines the protection of liberties in both countries, in particular the right of freedom of expression. In advanced Western democracies, the media perform a major role. The book deals with the impact on political life of the two major mass media: the press and television. Elections are the main mechanism for expressing the public's collective desires about who should be in government and what the government should do. The book examines a number of issues about the functioning of elections in two democracies, looking at the electoral system, and the way in which voters behave and the influence upon their voting.
of prisoners of war [al-ikhtAr fC asCr]
can only be taken by the executive or political authority [imAm] or by a subordinate authority appointed by the former authority [amCr mansEbin min jihati limAm]. This is something Muslims take so much for granted from the authority of
our naql [scriptures] that none will reject it except those who act counter to their
own ‘aql [intellect]. The most basic legal reason [‘illa aRliyya] is that this matter
Defending the transgressed
involves the public interest, and
Berlusconi as head of government
In the previous chapter and in chapter 4 we considered Berlusconi the campaigner
and Berlusconi the party leader. In this chapter our attention turns to Berlusconi
the prime minister, and to evaluating his impact as head of the governments that
held office from 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011. Specifically, we ask how successful he was in exploiting the position of chief executive to bring about significant
change and how his performance in this respect can be accounted for. In making
his political debut in 1994, he had promised
powers to the federal government. This is a major reason why
some observers refer to German federalism as “executive federalism.”44
Territorial vs partisan politics in the Bundesrat
As noted above, there were two periods in the 1970s and 1990s in particular, when strong criticism of the Bundesrat arose because of the “gridlock”
between the government and its majority in the Bundestag and the majority of Länder votes in the Bundesrat. This criticism is based not only on the
traditional view that the Bundesrat has the function of territorial representation, while the
families substantial economic benefits and offers them improved educational
and employment opportunities (Jiryis, 1971:66–7; Kretzmer, 1987). Such laws
were frequently passed to supplement the restrictions which had already been
put in place by the Emergency Regulations.
The Palestinians as a mosaic of insular minorities
After the affirmation of the basic Jewish–Palestinian binary, the subdivision of
the Palestinians ensued. Already in 1920, ‘the Intelligence Office’ of the Zionist
Executive’spolitical department in Palestine laid down a plan to manipulate
Recent years have witnessed a revived interest in civic republicanism in Ireland, in tandem with a growing consciousness of republican ideas across the English-speaking world. Yet while republicanism is posited as a catch-all public philosophy and as a framework for political reform in Ireland and elsewhere, its content remains highly ambiguous and contested. Its implications for constitutional structure and constitutional theory are the subject of wide debate in both legal and political thought. In this book, Eoin Daly and Tom Hickey consider republican themes in the Irish constitutional tradition. While the Irish Constitution has been understood as oscillating between a liberal concern for individual freedoms against the state and a communitarian concern for promoting a shared identity, the authors argue that many of its central features and devices can be interpreted in a distinctively republican light – and specifically, as providing a framework for participation in self-government. They consider how institutions and concepts such as popular sovereignty, constitutional rights, parliamentary government and judicial review might be re-interpreted in light of the republican themes of civic virtue and freedom as non-domination.
for mourning and a memorial to the victims of racism
which originated in slave society. Significantly, it has been renamed in
popular parlance the ‘Bussa’ statue after one of the key
participants in the 1816 slave revolt, turning this commemoration of
slavery into a celebration of black resistance.
At Independence the complexion of the political, legal
and judicial executive had become definitively and
Gerry Fitt was a key political figure in Northern Ireland for over twenty years, yet there is no major historical evaluation of his contribution, nor of his legacy or place in the memory of the minority community there. Drawing on unpublished party and private papers, recently released Irish and British government papers, and interviews, this book is the first academic study of the role of Gerry Fitt in the politics of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and will examine the first decade of the party through the lens of his leadership. Fitt was a driving force behind the original vision of the party and played a central role in creating the identity of the SDLP as a ‘radical socialist party’ which provided a ‘new’ style of nationalism, by prioritising socio-economic issues over the constitutional question. Yet, Fitt noted that he was often in an ‘unhappy minority of one’ over many issues and at times the relationship between himself and his party colleagues was ‘very uneasy’. This book, therefore, sheds new light on the formation of the SDLP, examining the reasons and processes through which the party was formed and the often conflicting policies and sense of political identity that the party portrayed throughout the 1970s. Contrary to the official narrative of the party, this book presents an alternative and more nuanced view of the machinations which moulded party policy in its first decade. This book is essential reading for students and scholars of modern Irish and British politics and the Northern Ireland conflict. It will also appeal to those interested in conflict resolution in divided societies.
This is a book-length study of one of the most respected and prolific producers working in British television. From ground-breaking dramas from the 1960s such as Up the Junction and Cathy Come Home to the ‘must-see’ series in the 1990s and 2000s such as This Life and The Cops, Tony Garnett has produced some of the most important and influential British television drama. This book charts his career from his early days as an actor to his position as executive producer and head of World Productions, focusing on the ways in which he has helped to define the role of the creative producer, shaping the distinctive politics and aesthetics of the drama he has produced, and enabling and facilitating the contributions of others. Garnett's distinctive contribution to the development of a social realist aesthetic is also examined, through the documentary-inspired early single plays to the subversion of genre within popular drama series.