focused on ‘hearth and home’.33
The context in which female Orange lodges emerged in Scotland suggests, though, a slightly different analysis of the role of respectability
in popular conservative politics. Although Orange public life clearly
became more feminised in this period, this research also indicates how
a sense of respectable masculinity was reinforced by the emergence of
women in the Order. Thus, Orange masculinity was defined, paradoxically, by a more prominent role for women, in which female lodges
were a useful tool for Orangemen to demonstrate that they
conform to respectable public
performances are positioned as “anti-women,” who undermine
social, economic and political nationalist projects. To mark the
boundary around his own middle-class black masculinity, he had been
taught to create notable distinctions in habit, speech and style from
working classes and from women. To see a woman “cussing”
outdoors in the way he and his peers do was unacceptable
will not prove or disprove human
nature to be one thing or another. Murray’s faith in the innateness of
femininity and masculinity is based upon a conceptual confusion: he talks
of the interaction of biology and environment, but also of how human
nature produces social and political institutions. Yet if biology and envi-
The new genetics
ronment interact, then institutions must also be said to produce human
nature to some degree. There is an even more invidious confusion. Murray
proposes that the revelation of genetic
depict the existence of an extensive, unwritten tribal law. This,
combined with a culture that associated masculinity with weapon use,
made any potential state intervention risky. Thus, prior to socialism,
the state was unable to control the rural territories completely. The
arrival of roads and the enforced building of the socialist state apparently fulfilled the objective of Zog’s dictatorship and the Italian fascists:
to impose a state system on remote Albanian villagers that dissolved
their old sociopolitical system. This was translated in the first instance
reflects a tension between the positive associations of normative masculinity with technological aptitude and comfort, and the suspicion within
marathon swimming (as a site defined by masculine norms) regarding the potentially polluting effects of technology. This tension is resolved through discourses
of control and autonomy: the authentic marathon swimmer is able to make judicious and appropriate use of those technologies without succumbing to seductive
consumerist compulsions that render the swimmer indiscriminately reliant on
the technology. This underpins much of
swim threatening weakness is intractably associated with the feminine through
exhortations to ‘stop crying like a girl’ or ‘stop being such a woman’ (or homo, gay,
puff, pussy) (Messner 1988). Conversely, more courageous or determined performance is aligned with masculinity, as in demands to ‘man up’ or ‘grow a pair’. It is
in this way that it is possible to describe Jenny and I as something that we are not
(girls) and then to encourage us to become more like something else that we are
not (men). There is no obvious lexicon or conceptual framework for
45 www.businessgames.at/ (accessed 15 January 2011).
(accessed 2 January 2011). See also www.highlandsafaris.net/corporate/team-
activities/ and www.greatawaydays.co.uk/highland-games.cfm (accessed 2 January
47 See Chapter 2 and Maureen M. Martin, The Mighty Scot. Nation, Gender, and the
Nineteenth Century Mystique of Scottish Masculinity (New York: SUNY Press, 2009).
48 Cdt Luc Vangansbeke, ‘Highland Games in Leposavic’, KFOR Chronicle 11 (July
2002): n.p. www
secondary school close to Palermo found important differences
between students’ perceptions of masculinity and femininity.
According to that survey, successful men were expected to be
‘decisive’, ‘secure’ and ‘strong’, while the values attributed to
a successful woman included ‘sweet’, ‘elegant’, ‘beautiful’ and
‘pleasant’.53 The practical experience of social workers in the
poor urban areas of Albergheria and Brancaccio in Palermo suggests that women are more active and more open to change
than men; women visit the centres and participate in social
Rankin on “The Big Sleep”’, in R. Chandler, The Big Sleep (London:
Penguin, 2005), p. vi. Chandler also employs chess imagery in The Lady in the Lake
(1943) and The Long Goodbye (1953).
78 Rzepka, Detective Fiction, p. 203.
79 Chandler, The Big Sleep, p. 1.
80 R. Chandler, The High Window (London: Penguin, 2005), p. 272.
81 M. E. Abbott, The Street Was Mine: White Masculinity in Hardboiled Fiction and Film Noir
(New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), p. 62.
82 L. Horsley, Crime Culture, www.crimeculture.com (accessed August 2012).
83 M. Oriard, Sporting with the Gods
. Spooner, ‘Masks, Veils, and Disguises’, in Hughes, Punter and Smith (eds),
Encyclopedia of the Gothic, p. 421.
30 Sign next to IBM’s Deep Blue on display at IBM Headquarters, New York.
A haunted mind 123
31 Quote from Ken Clemmer of Forrester Research, Cambridge, MA, www.chess.ibm.
com (accessed July 2014).
32 Quote from IBM, www.chess.ibm.com (accessed July 2014).
33 T. S. Mulligan, ‘Match Proves Internet Can Be King’, Los Angeles Times, 15 May
34 Maggie Kilgour, quoted in E. Brinks, Gothic Masculinity: Effeminacy in the Supernatural
in English and