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adjusted either in accordance with the former legal status or as is most convenient to the contracting parties. The third class of treaties comprises those made by States which have never been enemies and who unite in forming a league of friendship [amicitiam sociali foedere inter se iungendam coeant]; no conditions are either imposed or accepted, for these only exist between victors and vanquished … These were terms [imposed/unequal] on which to make peace with Philip their enemy, not a treaty of alliance with Antiochus, who was their friend [amico societatis foedus ita

in Friendship among nations
Abstract only

control and the rule of law – a point which I shall explore later. Yet, it illustrates that the power of categorization of citizens stems not only from their construction and their use by the state’s bureaucracy but also from their impact on the social structure and, consequently, on the life chances and experiences of citizens. In the current case, various policies had the impact of translating the Jewish–Palestinian dichotomy into ethno-class relations (Zureik, 1979; Sa’di, 1995). Those in charge of 05_Ahmad_Ch-4.indd 71 8/20/2013 1:54:39 PM MUP FINAL PROOF

in Thorough surveillance
From troubled pan-African media to sprawling Nollywood
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

the company, which was now Multichoice Investment Holdings (MIH), MCL having been separated from M-Net. Having bought MIH from the other press groups, the MIH conglomerate, which now comprised Multichoice, M-Net and M-Web, became a wholly owned subsidiary of Naspers in 2001( Teer-Tomaselli, 2007 ). Fundamentally, Multichoice looked at Africa not necessarily as an ideological and political construct but as a market. Its ‘products’ were targeted at consumers – rather than Africans – mainly the burgeoning middle-class within the continent, but

in Images of Africa
Open Access (free)

countries of the world, with a point value of 0.778 (on a scale of zero to one). The index for southeastern Anatolia is as low as 0.585 points. And while the average number of Ankara students per class is seventy, and per teacher twenty-nine, it is eighty-six in the southeastern town of Sirnak. The value of per capita bank deposits in Turkey as a whole was 167 million Turkish lira (TL), i.e. 417.5 dollars (at the beginning of 1999). The figure for the southeast is as low as TL10 million (25 dollars). Some figures further illustrate the gap between Turkey’s west and east

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

were being replaced by clashes over competing economic interests and in particular the competition over resources. From oil and natural gas competition in the Middle East and Asia, to the fight over water rights in the Middle East and Africa, to the struggle over controlling minerals and timber across the global south, “conflict over valuable resources—and the power and wealth they confer—has become an increasingly prominent feature of the global landscape,” wrote Michael Klare in 2002.6 Much of the underlying premise for this prediction is rooted in the global

in African security in the twenty-first century
Andrew Williams

and of minority appeal, even among the working classes. The liberal elites were therefore not only contributors to a debate, they were also, MUP/Williams/ch1 20 23/10/98, 11:25 am 21 The imagining of the Versailles NWO and far more than today, the creators of the background thinking for policy, and often policy makers themselves. In his famous work, The Twenty Years’ Crisis, E.H. Carr (who was a member of the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference) makes a particular point of attacking the ‘intellectuals’ who supported the call for a change in the

in Failed imagination?

prior to entry. [See also: Amsterdam Treaty; Maastricht Treaty; Single European Act; Treaties of Rome; Treaty of Nice] Action Directe A French anarchist/Maoist terrorist group founded in 1979, Action Directe played an active role in European terrorist networks until it was neutralised by a police operation in 1988. It had links with the Basque separatist movement ETA and with Middle Eastern

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

which these opposite solutions would ostensibly be reconciled. To this end, Ben-Gurion summoned the ‘Arabists’ – those who had gained intimate knowledge of the Arabs through their work in various institutions and participated in the implementation of the Zionist policy – for consultations. Yaakov Shimoni of the Middle East department in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs argued that principally they should not be given political rights. However, three days earlier, he composed a memorandum in which he outlined three alternatives regarding the non-participation of

in Thorough surveillance
The Indian diaspora

. Doctors, lawyers and traders migrated to areas where South Asian communities were settled. The second phase of migration began after the Second World War and involved migration to developed countries such as the United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada,Australia and New Zealand, some European countries and various countries in the Middle East. Peach also identifies a third phase of migration and characterizes it as ‘secondary migration, often forced, of the descendants of the first phase of migration’. The best-known example of this is the South Asians expelled

in India in a globalized world
Abstract only
Cultures of governance and conflict resolution in the EU and India

lack of understanding among governing classes of how autonomy constitutes the core of claim-makings today in post-colonial societies make the question inevitable. We have to see how the framework of sovereignty is being re-conceptualised in a post-colonial country like India 4 Cultures of governance and peace with the notion of shared sovereignty, popular autonomy, and justice. Similarly, in the EU context, we can point to the contradictions of processes such as integration, normative projection, and the multiple dynamics of external boundaries, centralisation

in Cultures of governance and peace