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departed the fringe and settled in the mainstream. Through a series of policy initiatives, the United States sharply increased military spending, reinvigorated the democracy-​promoting aspects of Wilsonianism, abjured relativism in favour of moral certainties, deployed the rhetoric of human rights and gradually focused more of its attention on the Middle East. Wolfowitz did not guide this process single-​handedly, but he was a consistently important voice throughout the period. While serving the Carter, Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations, Wolfowitz helped to

in American foreign policy
Andrew Williams

doubt that the world would be very different after the war and that this would have great implications for Imperial policy, strategically and tactically. In the first place, the defeat of Germany and the ‘disappearance’ of Russia and Austria left ‘only three first-class Powers in the arena of world politics – the British Empire, France and the United States of America’. The balance of power must therefore be re-thought in the light of this new reality. For Britain Smuts considered that this meant siding with America, not France. France had been ‘a bad neighbour to us

in Failed imagination?

by small communities of frontiersmen.’ Instead, Shaw advocated the ‘effective social organisation of the whole Empire’ (Ibid: 71). How the British found utopia in Africa 57 The Fabian Society was London-based and middle-class, espoused science rather than religion as a guiding principle of social organisation, and promoted the idea that an educated elite could bring about an enlightened and harmonious society (Vickers, 2003: 37).24 For the Fabians, the state was the central driver of such progress: ‘virility in government’ was required, argued its founder Sydney

in Britain and Africa under Blair

1885 and which had led the nationalist movement, dominated Indian politics until the mid-1990s.Table 2.1 gives a list of prime ministers and their political affiliations from 1947 until 2004. It may be noted that a majority were from the Congress. The party claims that it is a broad national movement that enables people from diverse social backgrounds to come together in the service of the country.8 But there is also a strong reliance upon a multiethnic, multilingual and middle-class elite to manage national politics. The members of this elite are committed to

in India in a globalized world

both (e.g. apartheid South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran), the sovereign prerogatives of which have been stripped away or significantly curtailed. Failing states with substantial UN peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations (e.g. Somalia, the Democratic Republic of Congo) occupy a lower-middle tier, while countries administered by the United

in Recognition and Global Politics
New storytellers, new narratives?
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

) described the way Kenyan journalists’ perspectives challenged Western reporting stereotypes. Simmons recalled writing a report on soaring food prices in Nairobi. His instinct had been to go to the city’s slums and see how the food crisis was affecting Kenya’s poorest; however, his Kenyan producer stopped him, saying: ‘Hang on – the crisis is affecting the middle class too – let’s go to Nakumatt [a large supermarket chain] and see how people are coping.’ (Interview, Nairobi, 14.8.09). The producer’s intervention resulted in a story that directly challenged – or provided a

in Images of Africa
Applying a theory of multi-level governance

number of successes including the political and economic stabilisation of the European continent, the enlargement of the EU from six to twenty-eight member states, and the creation of the Euro. However, the EU has also weathered political and economic storms. The most serious related to the global economic crisis post 2007 which threatened to fatally undermine the stability of the Eurozone area. External challenges – including conflict on the borders of the EU, particularly in the Ukraine and Turkey, and inward migration from war-torn parts of Africa and the Middle

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland

conflict, the eventual outcome of which was the formation of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. At least one million refugees were to be found on Ukrainian lands between 1915 and 1917. A further increase in the number of refugees took place as a result of revolutionary events in 1917, the outbreak of civil war and the ‘red terror’ in Russia. Paradoxically, at the same time, in the middle of 1918 Ukraine was considered to be an oasis of stability that offered shelter to the displaced.3 It thus served as a transit territory through which various ethnic groups sought

in Europe on the move

colonialism and the Cold War are steadily fading into the background. The rise of new generations, each calling for greater inclusion and government accountability, are maintaining the momentum—albeit uneven at times—for greater democratization and political reform across the continent. Economies are growing, and the middle class in Africa is expanding. The rapid pace of technological advancements and global integration are facilitating communication and the exchange of ideas between Africans, as well as non-Africans, as never before. The continent and its people are

in African security in the twenty-first century

adjusted either in accordance with the former legal status or as is most convenient to the contracting parties. The third class of treaties comprises those made by States which have never been enemies and who unite in forming a league of friendship [amicitiam sociali foedere inter se iungendam coeant]; no conditions are either imposed or accepted, for these only exist between victors and vanquished … These were terms [imposed/unequal] on which to make peace with Philip their enemy, not a treaty of alliance with Antiochus, who was their friend [amico societatis foedus ita

in Friendship among nations