7 The future of EU sports law and policy A central objective of this text was to place some order on the seemingly random and ad hoc impulses of EU activity in the sports sector. The book claims that today’s EU sports policy has developed out of a policy tension within the EU. The tension between the Single Market regulatory impulses of EU activity in sport and the EU’s political policy objectives for sport has contributed to the birth of a EU sports policy defined by the construction of the separate territories approach. In other words a distinct legal approach

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Abstract only
Their commencement, effects and termination

war or to treat hostilities as an armed conflict is political, made by governmental authorities, members of the forces must behave as if every conflict amounts to war and they must therefore abide by the law of war. In fact, it is becoming increasingly clear that the terms ‘war’ and ‘armed conflict’ are being used as if they were synonyms. However, during its operations against Afghanistan and Iraq

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

commitments, he attended only one further meeting and so, guided by his instructions, Letter from James Douglas to L. Hollingsworth Wood, 9 March 1922, in Brian Farrell, ‘The Drafting of the Irish Free State Constitution II’ (1970) 5 Irish Jurist 343, 347.  1 3 Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution the ­committee worked otherwise independently. Because of the magnitude of their task, it was of the utmost importance that the Committee, chosen by Collins and Arthur Griffith, should comprise accomplished, intelligent, politically neutral members.2 The Committee was

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution

much consumer anger and political action. 5 Zero rating is ‘positive’ net neutrality violation involving not blocking, but treating some content better than general Internet traffic. As cable TV provides high definition and standard video and television channels at high fees in a separate logical pathway to the general Internet traffic on its cable, some telecoms companies hope to partition their

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)

well as Specialised Services, there remain serious research gaps in the analysis. These gaps were predictable five years ago but have only slowly been addressed, reflecting the political, economic and forensic uncertainty of net neutrality regulation. Table 9 summarises the date of introduction of net neutrality policy, its regulatory basis and the major cases dealt with by the

in Network neutrality

(Dublin, 2003).  1 154 The legacy of the Irish Free State Constitution of 1922, with the language in many cases unchanged’.4 While, in 1922, the Constitution Committee started from scratch to build up a new legal and political system rather than ‘simply turning to any existing Dominion Constitutions for a model’,5 the 1937 Constitution includes many provisions from the 1922 document word for word or restates older provisions6 and even material discarded from early drafts of the 1922 Constitution.7 As the principal additions to Bunreacht na hÉireann are the

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution

5 Debates in the Constituent Assembly Introduction The passage of the Constitution through the Dáil, sitting as a Constituent Assembly, was a crucial stage in the drafting process as it was at this stage that the Constitution was solidified. The idealism of the early drafting period was replaced here with realism and the need to provide the new state with a working constitution; many of the originally strong Articles dealing with issues such as public ownership of land and natural resources were watered down due to the needs of political reality.1 However, that

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution

force or greater violence should be used to carry out an operation than is absolutely necessary in the particular circumstances. If the application of such force would cause injury to noncombatants or civilians it is disproportionate to the military end to be achieved. The demands of military necessity are limited by legal and moral, as well as military or political, considerations, and it should be

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

of behavioural ‘nudge regulation’ in Internet policy. First, I examine competition policy. Competition policy: origins and purposes It is worth reminding ourselves why competition policy exists: it was created to tackle the political and economic problems caused by monopolists abusing their dominance of certain trades, largely caused by the award

in Network neutrality

fundamental law of a State, to take cognisance of such considerations. These are the concerns of politics not of Constitutions; and a Constitution should be drafted on such broad lines as to permit the inclusion of many divergent policies from time to time.7 He also noted that Kennedy originally criticised the proposals which subsequently took shape in Executive B, with the remark that they would ‘lead to stagnation’. Letter on Draft C In O’Rahilly’s letter, he explained that, while he was unable to consult with his colleague Professor Murnaghan, he felt it advisable to

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution