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The widows and orphans of Parliament’s military commanders

widows sought to protect their estates from a hostile regime.3 These scholars have been broadly sympathetic to the notion that women became more actively engaged with politics as a consequence of the wars, deploying languages of loyalty and suffering to win over those in authority. Their works have tended to agree that Parliament’s granting of pensions to its war widows was a landmark moment in welfare history. Parliament’s motives in granting such relief were to mobilise further support, as well as to demonstrate their legitimacy and authority. These concerns were

in Battle-scarred

-century learned academies can equally be considered part of the structures that were transformed during the first half of the nineteenth century.7 This chapter discusses the foundation and transformation of medical societies in the Southern Netherlands from the late eighteenth century to the 1840s. It situates these societies within a changing scientific landscape, which gained a particular ‘Belgian’ outlook in a period of successive political shifts and reforms. In this process, medical societies were refashioned into a new type of institution. The older organizational model

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium

on the gentry led him to discount the relevance of religious non-conformity amongst other social groups’, and Michael Zell argued that ‘before 1640 (or 1660) the county of Kent was unified only in certain limited, political and social contexts’.7 Ann Hughes stated that she found herself ‘sceptical about notions of a sharp contradiction between local and general concerns’ in this period.8 It is this final aspect of Everitt’s work, which stressed ‘the pre-eminence of local allegiance and the gentry’s ignorance of and lack of concern for national issues’, which will

in Battle-scarred
The mental hospital Hamburg-Langenhorn during the Weimar Republic

11 The patient’s view of work therapy: The mental hospital Hamburg-Langenhorn during the Weimar Republic Monika Ankele This chapter focuses on the Weimar period (1919–33) and the German mental hospital (Staatskrankenanstalt) Hamburg-Langenhorn. It examines the wider political and social factors that impacted on work therapy. My emphasis will be on how patients perceived their role as inmates, how they reacted to work therapy and how they dealt with an uncertain future on their discharge from the institution. I will argue that work therapy meant different things

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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­discourses. These played a role in shaping public knowledge about who the sexual deviant was and what he represented. However, they were all portraying mixed messages with regard to sexual deviation, leaving the recipients very confused.5 Moreover, along with the courts, these public, somewhat prejudicial discourses created a favourable social and political context for the treatments. They helped to shape unsympathetic family, police and social attitudes, which in turn tacitly coerced men into receiving treatment. These factors were an affront to the patient’s autonomy

in ‘Curing queers’
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Art, pedagogy and politics in Revolutionary France

14  Visceral visions: art, pedagogy and politics in Revolutionary France Dorothy Johnson In late eighteenth-century France, at the seeming height of neoclassicism in the arts with its goal of idealised form al’antica in the depiction of the human figure, an intensified fascination with the visual experience of viscera emerged. Visualisations of viscera and the innards of the human body in general abound in the visual culture of this period, including prints (anatomical as well as political), wax models of human figures with organs exposed, écorché figures

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century

. Thus, the expansion and articulation of this network happened unevenly, generally in strategic ports or where the railway transport infrastructure was most developed. I also suggest that the gradual relaxation of quarantine in liberal Spain was periodically called into question by economic and political policies that defined the relation between the coastal and inland regions of the country. This, then, is a story of how – from the Ley de Sanidad (Health Law) of 1855 to the Reglamento de Sanidad Exterior (Border Sanitary Regulations) of 1899 – quarantine was about

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
The medical treatment of Parliament’s infantry commander following the battle of Naseby

such great lengths to keep Skippon alive, and the reasons why parliamentarian writers took such an intense interest in his medical treatment. Both issues were closely connected to the need to overcome residual political opposition to the formation of the New Model Army from within the parliamentarian alliance, and the wider need to secure outright victory over the royalists. ‘ 78 ‘Stout Skippon hath a wound’ Those in the House of Commons who had supported the New Model experiment were obliged to capitalise upon the victory at Naseby in whatever way they could and

in Battle-scarred
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Entrails and digestion in the eighteenth century

Jenner’s detailed weaving of legal testimony, visual prints and cityscapes, he shows how eighteenth-century privies (both communal and domestic) were regarded with disgust given their dirt and stench, but were also sites of varied activity. Bog-houses were locations for illegal and taboo practices such as infanticide and sodomy, topoi of political satire and scatology and the terminus for much contemporary writing which ended up recycled as toilet paper or bumfodder. These social spaces, Jenner concludes, encapsulate a ‘paradoxical urbanity’ affording a provisional

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
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Wandering soldiers and the negotiation of parliamentary authority, 1642–51

to King, Parliament, religion and county, and by their reactions to the political revolution which followed. This influenced the administration of law and order even in counties not directly affected by fighting. Meanwhile, far more people were taking to the roads than had been the case in peacetime. Parish officials, facing an increasing workload, and confused by conflicts within the normal chain of command, do not seem to have demanded passes with the same alacrity as in previous decades. Maimed soldiers and war widows travelling to their home parishes could

in Battle-scarred