, ideological reading of Shakespeare's tragedy that stripped it of all metaphysical dimension to focus on the socio-political elements of the fable.
From the beginning, the Ghost symbolised the festivalgoers’ frustration, which derived from the disconnection between the representation of the late king and the monumental, legendary venue. Embodied by a fat man hindered by his armour, helmet, shield, sword and flail, speaking in a paradoxically quavering, whining voice, the de-spectralised spectre seemed out of place in the
to their persons, for there is no more daungerous companie
than of Folly. (fol. 75v)
The passage clearly opposes the
courtier’s manly virtues, proving his mettle at war, serving
his prince and engaged in honourable studies – presumably
political philosophy, law, possibly science – and composing
) the value of The Faerie Queene hardly lies in the transparency of its moral messages; few readers would deny that Spenser challenges and even deliberately misleads his readers at times. 37 This of course may be politically expedient (there were obvious reasons not to satirise vocational celibacy openly during the reign of Elizabeth), but counterintuitive play also has a theological grounding. As Fish observes, obscurity and riddling have been a part of Christian pedagogy since Christ’s parables; overhasty or overconfident interpreters are supposed to be tripped
Paul Brown, for example, characterises Prospero's constant reminders to ‘Ariel of his indebtedness to the master’ as ‘a mode of “symbolic violence”’: ‘“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”: The Discourse of Colonialism in The Tempest ’, in Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield (eds), Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1985), p. 60.
Abraham, A Dictionary , p
Accounts of the quatorzain in Italy, France and England in the second half
of the sixteenth century
Carlo Alberto Girotto, Jean-Charles Monferran and Rémi Vuillemin
and the translations between languages and cultures in the sixteenth
century were intense but also selective, and submitted to complex
cultural and political tensions. 3 The sonnet did travel north, but through a
number of appropriations and transformations. The fact that it came
from Italy meant that it had to be adapted to new backgrounds, in
which its Italian identity could be put forward, exploited
in Macbeth (1606) has been criticised for political and medical fearfulness and for avoiding any positive medical action in the sleepwalking scene. That, however, is not his dramatic function. He provides half a dialogue without which the sleepwalking scene would be a dumb show. A brisk statement that he would be back in the morning with a purge, a cupping glass and a remedy for melancholy might sound better professionally, but hardly fits the plot.
Pericles has attracted most attention, having been written around the time of John and Susanna’s wedding. In a
is also true that she sacrifices herself in the end to save the world, this Ophelia deliberately chooses to make herself a sacrifice out of rational determination, not out of frenzied madness.
In the animation series Romeo × Juliet ( 2007 ) directed by Fumitoshi Oizaki,
we have another mutated Ophelia – this time, she is a protectress of the tree of life ( figure 12.2 ). The all-too-human story of the political power struggle between the Capulets and the Montagues turns out to be staged in
In referring to a ‘continuum’ I
am building on the work of Henri Meschonnic, who understands
‘the continuous’ as ‘the interaction
language-poem-ethics-politics’, in Langage, histoire, une même théorie (Paris:
Verdier, 2012), p. 719 (my translation). A poetics, according to
Meschonnic, must recognise the continuous in discourse, working
Similarly, Renaissance Self-Fashioning , the book in which Greenblatt developed this concept further, begins with an introduction that derives the book’s title from the context (and the frequency) of the word ‘fashion’ in the works of Edmund Spenser, and Greenblatt’s examples of self-fashioning figures also consist of poets and playwrights, whom he substantially views through their fictional writings. Even when writing about Sir Thomas More – who, as a political and religious (as well as a literary) figure, arguably embodied several areas of self-fashioning – Greenblatt
restrictions it imposed on Anglicans, is closely linked to his idea of personal faith. 40 This idea can of course be found in The Compleat Angler ’s presentation of angling as a contemplative art and a form of private worship, epitomised in its motto from 1 Thessalonians: ‘Study to be quiet, and to do your own business’. The passage that best summarises Walton’s idea of the private life, however, can be found in a relatively unknown pamphlet called Love and Truth , published anonymously in 1680. 41 Love and Truth , the most political of Walton’s writings, consists of