the writer–reader relationship are frequently undone by adaptation, where sources of authorship multiply, texts are unbound and rebound, and writer–reader functions blur. Adaptation studies has risen to address these complexities since 2000, transcending its previous narrow focus on the fidelity or infidelity of adaptations to engage in the pragmatics and politics of the adaptation process, as advocated by various scholars in the field (Hutcheon; Kooyman; Leitch; McFarlane; Sanders). The emergence of hypertext, new media, and technologised forms of writing and
discourse might very well exert a stranglehold on a franchise such as Harry Potter, Frankenstein has continued to boast a remarkably robust range of adaptations across time and media. Indeed, the Frankenstein Network’s ability to survive and propagate makes it a kind of Darwinian poster child. Just as natural organisms adapt to changing environments over time, so too has Shelley’s source text replicated itself across media and evolved in response to cultural, historical, scientific, political, and technological shifts. 1 Linda Hutcheon, in fact, has suggested the
Some Sámi voices have seconded Brodrej's critique, while others have dismissed it. Unsurprisingly, Märak and Jannok, the activists and actors who play key roles in the series, stress the fact that Idjabeaivváš sheds light on the long history of Swedish colonialism in Sápmi. ‘Many Swedes are completely uninterested or know little about the political situation of the Sámi, and in these cases, popular culture is a good way to reach an audience. It is our most effective weapon’,
Märak declares in an interview. Also
-first century, werewolf fiction is much engaged by questions raised in the Enlightenment and by contemporary counter-currents against that.
The werewolf is a Gothic monster, and the Gothic genre has from its inception been in a complex dialectic with Enlightenment principles.
The monster as metaphor for the social Other has been much charted by Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and many more critics.
As identity politics became mainstream and otherness, to an
Commodification, corporeality and paranormal romance in Angela Carter’s beast tales
Dialectic of Utopia and Ideology’, in The Political Unconscious , pp. 281–99).
‘History tells us that every oppressed class gained true liberation from its masters through its own efforts’ (Carter, Sadeian Woman , p. 151). Julia Kristeva, whose awareness of the precariousness of the subject and the animality it rests upon resembles Carter's, similarly insists on the need for agency in political revolution, summarised by Toril Moi as
ameliorating anxiety over the Depression’.
Such anxiety concerned not just the economic turmoil of the 1930s but the political threats too. The film was released in 1933; events in Europe were taking sinister shape. While the horrors of the prewar period are easily seen in hindsight, they were not obvious to everyone at the time even on the continent, never mind far away across the ocean in the United States. The two complacent pigs, happily singing and dancing while the third prepares for attack, became a perfect
France in the 1990s; in Switzerland a wolf appeared in 1995 and in 1998 so did one in Germany. In other countries wolves were later arrivals – in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2011 and in Denmark in 2013.
However, they are also emerging in social, cultural and political landscapes, landscapes that are very different from those when they were last present. Into such spaces they bring with them their history, not only their natural history but also their cultural history. Or, as perhaps it might be better expressed
Wagner the Wehr-wolf, Sweeney Todd and the limits of human responsibility
On the afternoon of 20 January 1843, Mr Edward Drummond, personal secretary to the then-Prime Minister Robert Peel, left his offices at Whitehall and set off on his daily walk home. Unbeknownst to him, a politically radical Glaswegian wood-turner named Daniel M’Naghten or McNaghten was lurking outside, waiting for the Prime Minister himself. At his subsequent trial, McNaghten, who seems to have suffered from paranoid delusions, insisted that Robert Peel was the leader of a conspiracy by which he had been persecuted for years; that day he had
, Mike. ‘Special Worlds and Secret Maps: A Poetics of Performance’. Staging Wales: Welsh Theatre 1979–1997 . Ed. Anna-Marie Taylor. Cardiff: U of Wales P.,1997. 85–99.
Phelan, Peggy. Unmarked: The Politics of Performance . London: Routledge, 1993.
Purves, Libby. ‘Review of Frankenstein. ’ The Times 25 February 2011. Theatre Record , 12–25 February 2011, 172.
Reason, Matthew. Documentation, Disappearance and the Representation of Live Performance . Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave
This book investigates the functioning of Gothic clothing as a discursive mechanism in the production of Gothic bodies. It presents the debates surrounding the fashion for decolletage during and immediately following the French Revolution, linking these discourses with the exposure of women's bodies in Gothic fiction. The popularisation of the chemise-dress by Marie Antoinette, and the subsequent revival of the classical shift by the women of the Directory, inflected the representation of female Gothic bodies in this period with political rhetoric. The book examines the function of clothing in early to mid-Victorian Gothic. It suggests that the Gothic trappings of veil and disguise take on new resonance in the literature of the period, acquiring a material specificity and an association with discourses of secrecy and madness. The book also investigates a nexus of connections between dandies, female-to-male crossdressing, and monstrosity. It then traces the development of the female doppelganger in the twentieth century, according to the ideologies of femininity implicated in contemporary women's magazines such as Cosmopolitan. In a world where women are encouraged to aspire towards an ideal version of themselves, articulated through fashion and lifestyle choices, the 'single' girl is represented as a problematically double entity in Gothic texts. The book examines the revival of Gothic style in the fashions of the 1990s. Gothic fashion is constantly revisited by the trope of the undead, and is continually undergoing a 'revival', despite the fact that according to popular perception it has never really died in the first place.