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consuming. This not only implies a new kind of aesthetic in fashion photography but also attests to the fact that the professional role and identity of agents within the fashion field had changed. Magazined art It is evident that the 1980s mark a decisive period when a number of converging movements in different fields induced changing attitudes towards fashion 115 116 Travelling images photography. It transformed from being identified as a transient, commercial and ‘lightweight’ photographic genre to being associated with artistry and experimentation. As shown above

in Travelling images
The public and private dimensions of local civic art

to secure and make ‘rational’ a specific cultural synthesis. This anthropological approach to understanding galleries supports a Veblenesque world view in which culture, to make any sense, must be conspicuous. These interpretations can offer an important psychological insight into the competitive, materialist and ultimately fragmented collective identity of the middle class, and an important explanation for its tolerance of expensive cultural endeavours.13 As noted throughout this work, civic pride was often the central component of the civic gospel, offering an

in High culture and tall chimneys

NON ART REALITY to be fully grasped by all peoples, not only critics, dilettantes and professionals.’11 Brecht’s event scores (figure 23), as we saw in Chapter 2, rendered the artwork’s borders porous to the space and time around it, and can thus serve as a tool to rediscover everyday objects and experiences in their ‘suchness’, without integrating them within a set composition. In contrast to Brecht’s scores, which often consist in a few words only, Maciunas’s own scores frequently took the form of grids including long, inventory-like lists, sometimes printed on

in Almost nothing

behaviour and well-being among employees and consumers. Gardens and landscaping had at times been employed for these means since the beginning of the factory system, but by the end of the century, landscaping at factories was becoming more sophisticated in terms of design and amenity. In America from the 1880s and to a lesser extent in Britain from the 1900s, the expertise of professional landscapists with specialist design and horticultural knowledge made it possible to enhance the beauty, function and symbolic value of the available space with the ultimate aims of

in The factory in a garden
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Factory closures, material culture and loss

’ and law was not law until it was printed. These certainties dissolved in the late 1980s and 1990s. This left some people in a bewildered state, with an indeterminate and unfixed professional identity and few certainties upon which to rely. Hot Metal has demonstrated the significant role that material culture, technology and spatial relations play in a very human story about adaptation, strategic survival and the ultimate decline of a nineteenth-centurystyle industrial establishment in the second half of the twentieth century. As we have seen, the prevailing social

in Hot metal
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lithographic print by the eighteenthcentury artist Louis-Léopold Boilly, famous for his caricatures.15 Thus the image itself was not new in the 1860s, only the practice of using photographs to produce it. Besides the professional production of mosaic cards it was a popular pastime among women of high society to cut out and paste photographs and combine them with pencil drawings or watercolours. The best known examples were made mostly in England, France and the USA between the 1860s and 1880s. These photocollages were individually handmade and commonly mounted in albums

in Travelling images

organised a number of international conferences, beginning with ‘Art and Human Rights’ (at the HRC, 2003); contributed to an edited volume with essays by a number of key scholars from the region on art and social change in Asia and the Pacific;20 and curated a number of exhibitions on the theme over the period 2003 to 2010.21 We found that many of the artists and arts commentators and museum professionals were concerned with the legacies of colonialism, immigration, multiculturalism and ‘the other within’ in their own cultures, and with the impact of globalisation and

in Art and human rights
Sculpture, sport and the nation at the Crystal Palace, 1854–1918

Britain’, a union of white people living in so-called settler colonies – concluding that ‘though in many lands we are one people’.49 Despite a flurry of attention in the 1890s, Cooper’s suggestions for a sporting and cultural festival to be held every four years for young men of ‘English speaking races’ was overtaken (from 1892) by the Olympic movement, which held the first modern Olympic games at Athens in 1896. But the idea of fostering a pan-white settler identity through sport, industry and culture was revived in the 1911 Festival of Empire, where all three

in After 1851

Degeneration was increasingly seen as more than just a social condition of the poor, but a biological force that was the cause of crime, destitution and disease. In Germany and Russia, where G.W.F. Hegel’s (1770–1831) philosophy of history had caused much hand-wringing about national identity, the notion that both societies were now quickly deteriorating into psychopaths, perverts and criminals caused great consternation.20 Degeneration was not associated with treatment but with the identification of deviance and immoral behavior. Daniel Beer argues that by the 1880s

in Degeneration, decadence and disease in the Russian fin de siècle
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‘Northern Irish art’ in the wider world

renegades; professional organisations; defining events; meetings and monuments; markets and museums –​in sum, distinctive structures of stasis and change.23 These various possibilities and problems recall Liam Gillick’s contention that art is a ‘space for what cannot be tolerated but can be accommodated under the conditions of neo-​liberal globalisation’; a cultural split personality which is, he concludes, ‘its strength and weakness’.24 Whether or not Gillick’s paradoxical view makes a convincing case for art’s political agency today, the dilemmas and difficulties he

in Ghost-haunted land