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Kate Greenspan

often chide or even murder when they should be patient. But it also overlaps with envy ‘ful of felunnye’, the third deadly sin. The exemplum and the discussion surrounding envy focus on the class most critically affected by the sin, professed religious men. While Mannyng does address this failing in the laity, the exemplum and most of his commentary concern envy within religious communities. This has important implications for his primary audience, secular priests competing with mellifluous friars for the attention of lay congregations. Priests must be aware that they

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
Katherine Sutton’s Experiences (1663), the printer’s device and the making of devotion
Michael Durrant

alongside Sutton. Sutton may have been a member of Knollys’ congregation, based in Bishopsgate, but this is not affirmed in the Experiences itself. What is clear is that Knollys’ presence within the text is designed to buttress Sutton's central narrative, shepherding the Experiences into the public domain and codifying it as a devotional product of her devotional identity, one that – despite, or perhaps because of, the doctrinally stark subject of predestination – was preserved and disseminated on behalf of self-identified Protestant saints ‘watchful’ over their own

in People and piety
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The anatomy of wonder in the sex riddles
Sharon E. Rhodes

genre holds not only for the more serious riddles but also for the humorous sex riddles: Womb wæs on Hindan (R.37), Wrætlic Hongað (R.44), Banleas (R.45), and In Wincsele (R.54). Each of these riddles can be solved in at least two ways—by a polite answer and an obscene one—forcing the audience to take note of the wonders implied by both readings, even as they may laugh and blush at the implicit comparison. Although scholarly reactions to these riddles have ranged from intense disapproval to religious allegorical readings, the double entendre riddles—in each

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
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Eric Klingelhofer

England, however, retained only remnants of its medieval domains. On the Continent, the Plantagenet legacy was reduced to a small zone defending Calais. Hegemony over the Scots was a thing of the past. Authority in Ireland had shrunk to the walled cities and the fifty-mile-wide Pale around Dublin. 2 French royal power pressed upon the Tudors at Calais, but in Ireland and along the Scottish border, English rule was challenged and essentially neutralized by the ‘feudal anarchy’ of a resurgent Celtic aristocracy. International politics, religious conflicts, and succession

in Castles and Colonists
Chaucerian Beckets
Helen Barr

signs of Becketian healing question the cultural desire for signs of religious miracles. The Pardoners It is unsurprising that this role is allotted to the Chaucerian Pardoners. Their professional existence rests on a practice in which the exchange of a piece of paper wipes temporal sin off the salvational slate. Pardoners claimed the power to remove the smirch of transgression. The virulent body of anti-Pardoner satire witnesses not only the abuse of the transaction – its financial corruption or its misunderstanding – but also the questionable value of the document

in Transporting Chaucer
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Material symbolism in the Old English Martyrology and Blickling Homily 11
Johanna Kramer

theology in a way not seen in the earlier materials. With the material image of the footprints, the martyrologist and the Blickling homilist connect to their audiences’ broader cultural knowledge, their experiences in the real world, their investment in and dependence on the natural world, and concurrent beliefs about the power of place. The employment of the footprints in Anglo-Saxon religious literature shows the medieval authors’ complex rhetorical and theological goals in texts that, to some, have appeared naively simplistic and that can

in Between earth and heaven
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Ye goon to … Hereford? Regional devotion and England’s other St Thomas
Daniel Birkholz

is famous for other genres, yet saints’ lives prove essential to its compilational undertaking. As pilgrimage demographer Ronald Finucane has shown, saints are, in an intimate way, about place, 7 and as Catherine Sanok demonstrates, English vernacular hagiography produces overlapping forms of secular and religious community, along the way to making eternity present and holiness proximate. 8 There are three Latin saints’ lives in Harley 2253, and each has regional grounding: St Ethelbert of Hereford (#18, fol. 53), St Etfrid of Leominster (#98, fol. 132), and St

in Harley manuscript geographies
Kathryn Walls

associated vestments that the queen had, through the ornaments rubric, made obligatory for her clergy.7 Writing in about 1641, Richard Montagu was to apply ‘needments’ to apparel – and in a religious, though not strictly ecclesiastical, context.8 Describing the ancient Jewish sect of the Essenes, Montagu explains that the Essenes took no luggage with them when they travelled: ‘If any of the   6 I quote from the note on I.i.6.1 in Hamilton’s edition.   7 I survey the manifold and various associations of Una’s garments in Chapter 1, note 61. In the Letter to Raleigh

in God’s only daughter
Stephen Penn

church is ‘the congregation of all of those predestined to salvation’ ( 27i ). This definition, he suggests, underlies many of the diverse conceptions of the church that are found in scripture. It is this church, he goes on to suggest, that we should properly identify as the bride of Christ. The head of the church, we are told, is uniquely Christ himself, and its members are his limbs. Nobody can know for certain that he or she is among the predestinate, or even the foreknown (that is, those predestined to damnation), which meant that, for Wyclif, nobody could be sure

in John Wyclif
Chaucer in the nineteenth-century popular consciousness
Stephen Knight

drawing on another source, as was common – saw ‘a prophetic faculty’ in his prefiguration of this new ‘Palace of Glass’ in quotations from the House of Fame: ‘the temple made of glass’ with ‘many a pilar Of metal’ visited by a ‘right great company’ from ‘sundry regions’ of ‘al kinds of conditions’, and overall ‘Such a great congregation Of folks as I saw roam about’.26 In general, the Chaucer of this early-to-mid-nineteenth-century re-imagination had a mobile multiplicity, past and modern, national and spiritual, learned and popular. Lawrence Horne summed it up in a

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries