‘recognise’ that The Winter’s Tale
– my fourth example – alludes to Pygmalion because it
contains an apparent statue that apparently comes to life. That would be
a very common form of cherry-picking – as Caliban is often picked
from his original context to make something new. But The
Winter’s Tale may rather make something old, in a coup
de théâtre that is more likely to invite us to
controlled for the sake of the man.
In Fur (2000) , Citrona appears as the ultimate symbol of a fear-inducing individual. Her body is an individual body, beastly in nature, consuming only raw meat. Citrona, unlike The Tempest ’s Caliban, has also mastered, consumed and internalised language, philosophy and knowledge about popular culture – as a result, she is able to use ‘the master’s tools’ to rationalise her circumstances and gain control over the anxiety of her spectators. But, by having Citrona control the levels of anxiety – displacing
Antony and Cleopatra and visual musical experience
theatrical language describing the dramatic world. This has been recognized
in part by Frances Ann Shirley, who notes that ‘musical sounds […] create the
illusion of marching armies off stage’ in a number of Shakespeare’s plays. She
traces the particular meanings that certain musical and non-musical sounds can
convey – how ‘[a] flourish, for example, adds an air of dignity and increases
our excitement’, or how ‘the words of Caliban and Barnadine before they enter
not only create anticipation in the audience, but also confirm the unflattering
descriptions of each
’s Malengin and the elegies written in honour of Fiach Mac Hugh O’Byrne in The Severed Head and the Grafted Tongue: Literature, Translation and Violence in Early Modern Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 139–40.
117 For a similarly polyvalent wetlandscape see Todd Andrew Borlik, ‘Caliban and the Fen Demons of Lincolnshire: The Englishness of Shakespeare’s Tempest ’, Shakespeare , 9.1 (2013), 21–51. Borlik suggests that Caliban has one foot in imagined New World colonies and the other in the oozing fens of Lincolnshire.
118 FQ , note to V.x.24
adopted in the Anglo-Indian press.
One native newspaper had the following to say on the Pigot case:
The Englishman refuses to
believe that the fair Miranda of the Tempest, recently enacted
at the High Court, could possibly go wrong with Caliban . . . .
We wonder that the revelation in the High Court of Babu Kali
Race, culture and power in the Trinidad ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition, 1946–59
cleaning up carnival: the trinidad ‘carnival queen’
woman was tamed into a decorative symbol of Carnival. Winners of
‘Queen of the Bands’, who tended to be brown, and rarely black, were
tasked with delivering femininity that combined elements of subaltern
cultural authenticity, so prized by the middle-classes, harmonised with
the aspirations of a modernising Carnival.
1 Trinidad Guardian, 27 February 1949, p. 6.
2 Barnes, Cultural Conundrums, p. 56.
3 Rosenberg, Nationalism and Caribbean Literature, p. 129; Neptune, Caliban and the
Yankees, pp. 23, 47
fire; Caliban – although he is not a spirit – is associated with
both earth and water. However, Shakespeare’s Tempest does not
really interrogate the nature of spirit: that spirits exist, and that
they are airy and rapid, is merely taken for granted. The characteristics
of spirits, and the nature of their operations in the material world,
are dealt with much more explicitly and in much greater depth in
the song above. This particular alteration to the story would not
seem to be the result any particular enthusiasm for the existence of
spirits on the part of the
, IV, 317–22;
Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, II, 294.
25 Gillis, For Better, For Worse, p. 204; Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, IV,
26 HO 144/161/A41540 (for quote); Liverpool Mercury, 17 November 1885, p. 3; 9 December
1885, p. 7.
27 J. W. Rounsfell, On the Road: Journeys of a Tramping Printer, ed. A. Whitehead (Horsham:
Caliban Books, 1982), pp. 19–20.
28 Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, III:403; M. Higgs, Glimpses into the Abyss
(London: P. S. King & Sons, 1906), p. 94.
the demimonde and the very poor
Fred Cooper (eds), Tensions of
Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press,
See Boaventura de Sousa Santos, ‘Between
Prospero and Caliban: Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and
Inter-Identity’, Luso-Brazilian Review , Volume 39, No.
2, Special Issue, Portuguese Cultural Studies
Dorking’, Victorian Studies , vol. 8, no. 4, June, 1965,
pp. 309–27; also ‘For England’, Chums , vol.
XVI, no. 801, 1908, p. 430.
Boy’s Herald , vol. VIII, 1908; for
the psychology of ‘hatred’ in the colonised see O.
Mannoni, Prospero and
Caliban , London, 1956 , pp. 74