as the Bishop of Niger.
This marked the high point of Africans being promoted to positions of
leadership in the church and reflected the ChurchMissionarySociety
(CMS) policy under the leadership of Henry Venn of establishing a
‘native’ church on the Niger run by African missionaries.
The all-African Niger Mission was seen not simply as a means of
Christian conversion, but as ‘a training-ground in
Pedersen, ‘The maternalist moment’, 201. See also John Stuart, ‘Overseas mission, voluntary service and aid to Africa: Max Warren, the ChurchMissionarySociety and Kenya, 1945–63’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History , 3 (2008), 527–43; R. P. Neumann, ‘The post-war conservation boom in British colonial Africa’, Environmental History , 7:1 (2007), 37.
Cooper, Africa Since 1940 , p. 31; Hodge, Triumph of the Expert , p
University Press .
Nalder , Leonard Fielding (ed.). 1936 . Equatorial Province Handbook . Vol .
1 Mongalla. Sudan Government Memoranda No. 4.
Khartoum : n.p .
Nalder , Leonard Fielding (ed.). 1937 . A Tribal Survey of Mongalla Province by Members of the
Province Staff and ChurchMissionarySociety .
London : Oxford
’s great uncle Henry Thornton was one of the
founders of the Clapham Sect and the ChurchMissionarySociety (CMS)
(1799), first president of the British and Foreign Bible Society
(1804), and friend of William Wilberforce (his second cousin). John
Thornton, Eliza’s brother, married the daughter of Bishop
Heber of Calcutta. To further cement the Clapham link, in 1814 Henry
had better luck in his dealings with the ChurchMissionarySociety (CMS), which, helped by the presentation of a sizeable cheque,
parted with the letters and journals of Samuel Marsden and of other
early CMS missionaries in New Zealand. 48 In the absence of a suitable repository in
New Zealand these went into storage in the basement of the General
Assembly Library, where, Hocken worried, they would inevitably suffer
Kikuyu loyal to the British government, who
were also closely associated with the Churchmissionarysocieties
and schools, maintained a voice through the Local Natives Council. 27 A group of
several thousand squatters who had been evicted from the White
Highlands and settled in Olenguruone radicalised the Kikuyu practice
of oathing in 1943 as they were being threatened with another
William Carey’s Serampore mission in Bengal had begun
admitting Indian girls in 1816. 47
The very small European population made it difficult for
early missionary enterprises to attempt to gain a broader foothold on
the subcontinent. However, new agency from abroad after 1813,
particularly via the evangelical, low church, ChurchMissionarySociety
(CMS), still attempted to impose a new agenda on India: an
, June 1, 1869 (RHL) SPG D31 f.
Baptist Annual Zenana Report, 1882 (AL).
J. Deed (ed.), Church Work: Mission Life
(London, Wells, Gardner & Darton & Co., 1885 ), p. 374 British Library (BL); E. Stock The History
of the ChurchMissionary
. Lady Cook, wife of a famous ChurchMissionarySociety
doctor, Sir Albert Cook, pioneered African women’s nursing in
Uganda. Mother Kevin (born Teresa Kearney in Ireland in 1875), a
Franciscan nun, spent fifty-one years in Uganda, opening fifteen
convents (each complete with chapel, school and hospital), together with
a model leprosarium, a senior girls’ secondary school and a
training school for
Missionaries soon aimed to send their offspring back to Britain for
their education, in order to reduce their ‘premature’
exposure to sex. 49
There were sexual problems to trouble the founder of the
ChurchMissionarySociety New Zealand mission (1814), Samuel Marsden. At
the Bay of Islands in the 1820s, he found the Rev. Thomas Kendall had
been living for some years openly with a native girl, Tungaroa, the