of mass consumer
society, after all (see Moretti, 1983: 231 and Chapter 1).
Elephant, in the end, as it appears on screen, both offers choices
(multiple ways around the site, multiple reasons for the killings) and withdraws them, through a form of interactivity that finds multiple pathways
but refuses to offer anybody a choice about which of them to take, and
perhaps through a refusal to say, ultimately, if the explanation chosen
In tracking these tales through long shots, exposing these fragments,
and in returning over and over again to these spaces and
). For more on distant reading, see F. Moretti, Distant Reading (London:
2 For an account of the commercial underpinnings of the Palace, see H. Atmore,
‘Utopia Unlimited: The Crystal Palace Company and Joint-Stock Politics,
1854–1856’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 9:2 (2004), 189–215. For a more sensitive
analysis of working-class cultures at Sydenham, see D. S. Ryan, ‘Staging the
Imperial City: The Pageant of London, 1911’, in F. Driver and D. Gilbert
(eds), Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (Manchester: Manchester
via carriage, rail, and steamboat.76 Of course, accidents
happened. The only Italian window exhibited at the Paris 1867 Exposition,
Competition and exchange
a Coronation of the Virgin by Perugian artist Francesco Moretti (1833–
1917), was damaged in transit.77 Upon arrival, stained glass, like other
exhibits, was often subject to import duties as well as the costs of packing,
insurance, wharfage, and freight (by carriage, rail, and ship). Analysis of
Hardman’s Glass Day [Sales] Books reveals that these charges could range
from 6 per cent to 20 per cent of
English Language’, W. H. Auden and Norman
Holmes Pearson (ed.), (1950), Mendelson (ed.), Prose Volume III, pp. 103–154. Auden’s
point about the history of historical consciousness is made at brilliant length by Franco
Moretti, The Way of the World. The Bildungsroman in European Culture, Verso, London,
49 Above, pp. 181 W. H. Auden, ‘Stimulating Scholarship’, Prose Volume IV, pp. 6–12; orig.
review of Lewis, English Literature in the Sixteenth Century, The Griffin, March 1956.
50 W. H. Auden, ‘Just How I Feel’, Prose Volume IV, pp. 77–82 orig. review of H. S
2003), Pericles Lewis’s Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel (Cambridge: University
of Cambridge Press, 2000), Franco Moretti’s Atlas of the European Novel 1800–1900
(London/New York: Verso, 1998), and Glenda Norquay and Gerry Smith’s co-edited
volume Space and Place: The Geographies of Literature (Liverpool: Liverpool University
Press, 1997) cross between cities, while Andrew Thacker’s Moving through Modernity
(Manchester University Press, 2003), Olga Matich’s edited Petersburg/Petersburg
(Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2010), and Julie A
Euro-American orphans, the bildungsroman, and kinship building
Maria Holmgren Troy, Elizabeth Kella and Helena Wahlström
things you have left to
do on yourself’ emphasizes her self-reliant, ambitious goal; what she
talks about is self-improvement, in the manner outlined by Benjamin
Franklin. Her attitude resembles Lucille’s in Housekeeping, who, as
discussed in Chapter 3, uses strategies similar to those of self-made
men in American history in order to improve herself.
The socially inflected ambition that Brooks traces in the plots
of nineteenth-century literature, and that Ellen subscribes to, is a
prominent characteristic of the nineteenth-century bildungsroman.
Indeed, Franco Moretti
Williams, ‘too late’ and ‘the quest for connection is always tinged
with melancholy’. Williams borrows from Franco Moretti to argue that the tears
so common to the melodramatic mode come when the characters finally realise
what the audience knew all along, and when their desire is ‘recognized as futile’.28
Mourning for Pavese’s lost love (if only he had arrived one day earlier!) takes precedence over the experience of internal exile, which for him, the documentary
implies, was fruitful in both politics and prose.
Prima che il gallo canti, the only feature film made on
, ‘James Kelman interviewed’, Scottish Studies Review, 5:1 (2004), 106.
31 Maley, ‘Denizens, Citizens, Tourists’, 66.
32 Nancy Armstrong, ‘The Fiction of Bourgeois Morality and the Paradox of Individualism’, in Franco Moretti (ed.), The Novel. Vol. 2: Forms and Themes (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2006), 387.
33 Raymond Williams, Marxism and Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), 148.
34 Willy Maley, ‘Swearing Blind: Kelman and
the inquisition and disciplining jews
Donati in 1705 and 1733; Isaaco Finzi in 1720 and 1747; Pelligrino Formiggini in 1639 and
1641; Elia Levi in 1638 and 1639; Abramo Maciucchu in 1662 and 1663; Isaaco Modena
in 1750 and 1756; Girolamo Moretti in 1678 and 1680; Abramo Sacerdote in 1600 and
1602; Giacobbe Sanguinetti twice in 1746; Isaaco Sanguinetti in 1608 and twice in 1625;
Lazzaro Sanguinetti in 1641 and again in 1696; Salomone Sanguinetti in 1701, 1702 and 1705;
Samuele Sanguinetti in 1615 and 1623; Simone Sanguinetti in 1624, 1627 and 1629; Viviano
Samuel Daniel and the naturalisation of Italian literary forms
Greg, Pastoral Poetry , p. 254.
Proctor argues that Hymens Triumph is
‘more independent of its models’ than the earlier
pastoral: Johanna Proctor, ‘ The Queen’s Arcadia
and Hymen’s Triumph: Samuel Daniel’s court
pastoral plays’ in J. Salmons and W. Moretti, eds, The