-​agricultural exports to Germany were non-​ferrous scrap and woollen or worsted fabrics. Traditional Irish fabrics and textiles were aggressively marketed, but they confronted German tariffs and imitations produced by German mills.1 In the estimation of the Irish minister in 1955, the best industrial export prospects lay in woollens, tweeds, leathers, shoes, laces, knitwear and other traditional manufactures.2 These would never approach the volume and value that Ireland required to counterbalance imports from Germany, which were usually essential capital goods. Major Irish firms and

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
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capita was only half as in the United Kingdom. By 1996 it had exceeded British levels.4 Ireland and Taiwan were still poor, peripheral and technologically backward societies in 1950. By the end of the 1960s, state-led industrial- FANNING 9781784993221 PRINT.indd 140 19/01/2016 13:25 Tales of two tigers 141 development policies had emerged in both countries, which rapidly expanded levels of indigenous human capital between 1960 and 1980.5 In both cases the state actively promoted economic development. There are some similarities in how they went about this. Both

in Irish adventures in nation-building

houses are fundamental to the structure of the squatters movement in Amsterdam. Living groups within squatted households who identify as part of the squatters movement, 1 consequently both reflect and refract larger movement dynamics of hierarchy and authority. They reflect the standards of a larger movement in the sense that one’s squatter capital contributes to one’s status position within a squatted household. They refract in that within a household, the highest values are to maintain a lively and peaceful

in The autonomous life?
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, family friends found them employment and gave them their basic training, again a common feature of Sephardic life. And later, when they moved to Paris, Rodrigues fils trained them and used his networks to find jobs for both young men. Family and kinship were significant to the Pereires’ later success. It was the advent of rail in the 1830s which changed the business environment forever. Aside from capital on a scale hitherto inconceivable, the magnitude of industrial activity required to project France into the industrial age in the nineteenth century also called for

in Emile and Isaac Pereire

2 The origins of generalised trust Researchers have identified several distinctions between various forms of social capital. While social capital has been defined in relation to norms, attitudes and patterns of interaction, interpersonal relationships are its central component. Hooghe and Stolle make a distinction between structural and attitudinal social capital: whereas structural social capital is related to networks, for example membership of associations, attitudinal social capital refers to attitudes to trust and reciprocity.1 Furthermore, different forms

in Cultural warfare and trust
Neoliberalism’s “nature”

hurricanes and other troublesome phenomena understood to be the fault of “nature” were becoming, the insurance and reinsurance industries concluded that they might be in trouble as climate change produced more droughts, floods, and storms. They needed to spread the risk of expensive, weather-related disasters out beyond the traditional insurance markets, over a much, much larger pool of financial capital. The global pool of capital operative in insurance and reinsurance is about $350–$400 billion. For most of us, this sounds like quite a sum, but one Katrina costs insurers

in Neoliberal lives
Capitalism spiralling out of control

mask what the underlying dynamic of endless capital accumulation is about and the social consequences it produces. Concentrating on the ‘how and where’ might bring us to the point where we forget entirely to ask ‘why?’. We ignore the power of metatheory on principle rather than as a convenient practice in certain research situations. 46 The transformations of global capitalism The concrete crisis Why has all of that cement been spread around in China? Cement is used in construction. This obviously suggests a massive investment in the creation of built environments

in Western capitalism in transition
The milieu culture of DIY punk

5 Crass, subculture and class: the milieu culture of DIY punk Peter Webb This chapter presents an account of the activities and social formation of the DIY punk band Crass in order to develop a critique of the notion of ‘subculture’ employed at the time of the group’s existence (1977–85) by the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). It supplies a narrative of how the band and the cultural movement known as `anarchopunk’ provided a ‘milieu’ where class identities could blend and develop hybrid forms of cultural and social capital.1

in Fight back
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Incapacity and debt 109 4 Incapacity and debt Fortuna perit, virtus et fama manent.1 Many questions about the nobility’s economic capital have proved difficult for historians to answer for the post-revolutionary period. When David Higgs surveyed the historical literature in the 1980s it was not clear whether the maximum to minimum range of wealth found in noble families looked any different from the maximum to minimum range of wealth found in bourgeois families of the nineteenth century. It was debatable whether nobles were any less ‘capitalist’ or

in Nobility and patrimony in modern France

5 Some immigrant lives People generally migrate to improve their circumstances on some dimension, either psychological, social, cultural, political, or economic, and sometimes all of the above. Migration is a principal mechanism by which human beings expand their choices, increase their opportunities, and enhance their capabilities. Migrants thus tend to be self-selected for drive, motivation, and ambition; and because migration inevitably entails costs, they are also selected for access to capital – financial, human, social, and cultural. Whether or not

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland