consists of five large volumes on
the north and central Italian peninsula.
During the nineteenth century, the means for travelling and communication changed drastically, at least for those who could afford
them, owing to technical and infrastructural advances in Europe. Oscar
Montelius went all over Europe to study collections and artefacts. He
often travelled together with his wife Agda, who became very engaged in
his work. He was involved in debates on Mediterranean research from
an early stage. Adopting a comparative research method, Montelius
tried to see as many
distribution, ensuring more widespread and diverse practices of recognition, legislating more equitable life
chances, and enhancing lifeworld communication. But in line with the argument developed here, it may be more centrally a matter of finding an equilibrium between the normative capacity of states to limit the exercise of power
and apply it evenly and predictably through positivised political centralisation,
on the one hand, and the factual capacity of social systems for a constant
re-articulation of the relation between knowledge and power in ways that
campaign activities and at the
same time sought to reach their own voters through separate communication tactics. According to one of the parties’ communications managers interviewed for this research:
there had to be a distinctive [party] case … the job that we really had was
to try to identify the [party] vote, identify bits of our vote that were soft
and might vote Yes, and try to directly communicate with them, partly by
the traditional methods of canvassing, of writing to them, direct mail and
that sort of thing.
Yes Scotland was also a coalition of several
Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism. Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence. Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles. This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.
(chapter 8) taps into a radical psychiatric tradition which has frequently appealed to anarchists for its critique of
dominant constructed notions of reality. This is one of the reasons for the attraction of Michel Foucault’s work to many anarchists. Certainly the way that Gore
looks at the discourses around creativity and art, as well as those of mental
health and normality, is reminiscent of this analytic approach. Gore’s and
Bowen’s chapters concentrate on education, age, communication and the importance of art and creativity in the libertarian struggle, something
Distance, representation and criticism
This chapter provides a link between the principal focus upon point of
view in the previous chapter, and the principal focus upon communication in the chapter to follow. To treat artworks as comprising spectrums
or axes of distance has been demonstrated, as we shall shortly see, to be
a powerful way of conceptualising how point of view works within them.
After a survey of a range of existing approaches to point of view and
distance from within and beyond film studies, I explore the handling
of point of view and distance
The role of the media in modern politics is one of the most discussed and contested topics in democratic debate. This chapter examines the provenance of political communication and the ways in which it currently impacts on the political system. The media may not initiate specific measures but they help create the atmosphere, or ‘political culture’ ( Chapter 5 ), in which such things can happen.
What are the media?
‘The media’ is a collective term for all of the various means of communicating information. There are many kinds of media and their relative
act of talking in Napoli to the power-laden, ambivalent and pragmatic verbal dynamics of transcultural interaction in the city’s street markets.
In the street markets where I did ethnographic research, talk about talk shaped communication in a number of ways: as a way of reflecting melancholically on what Napoli was, as well as what it was in the process of becoming; as a practical necessity whereby migrants and Neapolitans had learnt from each other through socialisation and working together; and as a means of making claims about belonging or expressing
interest in holistic systems predated cybernetics. Whereas cybernetics prioritised controlled feedback, general system theory was concerned with interrelation in an expended sense, and ‘dynamic interplay of processes’. 4 Kaprow’s name is not perhaps one that immediately springs to mind when thinking about ‘Systems Esthetics’ – unlike, say, Hans Haacke or Les Levine – but as the 1960s progressed, he used the Happening to analyse systemic interplay of the kind Bertalanffy describes, focusing in particular on interpersonal communication and its role in education and
The conversational etiquette of English national
for example, by the inclusion of questions on national
self-definition as a regular feature of the annual British Social
Attitudes surveys). Less formally, English people may be encouraged
to publicly broadcast their national sentiments, fantasies and
desires through some medium of mass communication (exemplified by
the What England Means to Me website). 3