International mobility poses particular challenges to belonging. Before
migrating, sense(s) of belonging or alterity within family, peer group, local
community, nation and the world are constructed along specific socio-spatial
axes of differentiation (Brah, 1998). These include gender, ethnicity, class, religion and material circumstances. Internationalmigration simultaneously
exposes the migrant to unfamiliar axes of differentiation and to new experiences
as ‘immigrant’ and ‘other’ in the receiving society. This inevitably has implications for immigrants’ sense of place
of InternationalMigration: The American Experience. New York: Russell Sage, 34–52.
Mountz, A. (2011) ‘Where asylum-seekers wait: feminist counter-topographies of sites between states’, Gender, Place and Culture, 18:3, 381–99.
Munck, R. (2008) ‘Migration, globalisation and the politics of scale’,
Translocations, Migration and Social Change, 4:1, 142–8.
Ní Laoire, C. (2007) ‘The “green green grass of home”? Return migration to
rural Ireland’, Journal of Rural Studies, 23:3, 332–44.
Ní Laoire, C. (2008) ‘“Settling back”? A biographical and life-course perspective on
Mapping female subjectivity for the turn of the millennium
——20 nuevos directores del cine
español ( Madrid : Alianza , 1999 ).
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uncritically we hope, a number of frames of feminist thinking. First, it draws inspiration from established, second-wave feminist thinking whereby it places
women at the centre of accounts of refugee migration and migrants in a bid
to discover all the stories that can be told. Second, it aims to show that
refugee women’s stories can form the basis of enquiry and add new
knowledge and understanding to the existing body of work in contemporary internationalmigration. In doing the first two things, this study presents
different ways of envisioning some key concepts used in the
The immigration debate and common anger in dangerous times
/01/31/nationalism-nativism-and-the-revoltagainst-globalization/ (accessed April 2019).
27 For evidence that the proportion of people migrating across international
borders internationally declined between 1960 and 2000, see Mathias
Czaika and Hein de Haas, ‘The globalization of migration: has the
world become more migratory?’, Internationalmigration review, 48:2
28 Doreen Massey, Landscape/Space/Politics: An Essay, available online at:
https://thefutureoflandscape.wordpress.com/landscapespacepolitics-anessay/ (accessed April 2019); Ben Rogaly and Kaveri Qureshi
prompts reflection on the wider political and societal implication of this strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’
Political and societal implications
An important implication of the construction of the ‘migrant’ other as a
potential terrorist threat is that it has securitised migration through making
possible and further strengthening restrictive migration control practices,
which are contributing to the normalisation of a deep-rooted suspicion of
foreigners within European societies. The UN ‘InternationalMigration
Report’ of 2006 offered support to this
, ‘Current Trends in InternationalMigration in Europe’ (The Council
of Europe, 2006), www.coe.int/t/dg3/migration/archives/documentation/Migra
tion%20management/2005_Salt_report_en.pdf (accessed November 2016).
38 There is, of course, also the troublesome issue of what kinds of migrants and
nationalities are permitted to pass which national borders, but this is an issue for
border studies that I will leave aside, even though the issue has often surfaced in
discussions of art, migration and politics; see, for example, Iain Chambers, ‘Adrift
and Exposed’, in Lene
own mini-sending countries within the host
countries (‘dish cities’) and pursuing a process perceived and defined as ghettoisation and fostering a parallel society.
Host countries’ perceptions of immigrants from poorer places are often coloured by contempt, and Europeans are no exception. Consequently, Muslim
migrants are looked down upon. Integration then seems difficult if not remote.
Indeed, the Global Commission on InternationalMigration (GCIM) recommended that migrants should leave a host country if they reject the very notion
of integration or feel that they
Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Lentin, R. (2012) ‘“There is no movement”: a brief history of migrant-led
activism in Ireland’, in R. Lentin and E. Moreo (eds) Migrant Activism
and Integration from Below in Ireland. London: Palgrave Macmillan,
Levitt, P. (2003) ‘“You know, Abraham was really the first immigrant”:
religion and transnational migration’, InternationalMigration Review,
Levitt, P. (2004) ‘Redefining the boundaries of belonging: the institutional
America] are not confused, rootless people who are hostages to forces
beyond their control’. Rather they were much more self-transplanted; similarly
John Bodnar says they were essentially ‘pragmatic’ people, with a flexible, risktaking, modern state of mind: ‘a typical immigrant mentality had been that of
a venturesome conservative, who employs new strategies in pursuit of recognizably traditional aspirations’.60 Gerber also stresses the idea of European peasantries
seeking rational betterment and renewal: ‘Internationalmigration was a strategy