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Crisis, capitalism and democracy

_CoulterNagle_Printer3.indd 90 24/04/2015 16:36 A perfect storm: crisis, capitalism and democracy 91 than debt repayment. Journalist Fintan O’Toole summed up the spirit of the deal judiciously, writing: There is no sharing of the burden. There is no evidence of a single thought for the consequences of mass unemployment, mass emigration and war on the most vulnerable. There is no European solidarity. And there is not even a genuine sense of self-interest. The sadistic pleasures of punishment have trumped the sensible calculation that an Ireland enslaved by debt is not much use to

in Ireland under austerity

Labour parties and Clann na Talmhan (western small holders), and Clann na Poblachta (People of the Republic). The government lasted for three years before being replaced by a Fianna Fáil government, led by Eamon de Valera. By 1955–56 Ireland was experiencing severe balance of payments problems, economic recession, high unemployment and mass emigration. The emphasis still remained on agriculture, which was considered to be a key economic driver. There was little interest in developments in Europe, with the focus mainly on America, and there was little confidence in

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Agricultural science and education

2 Reforming food production: agricultural science and education ሉሊ The immediate post-Famine period was marked by profound optimism about the potential of Irish agricultural development. In the space of just a few years, Ireland’s socio-economic landscape had radically adjusted. By 1851, Ireland was a more desolate country, preparing itself for a gradual recovery from the socio-psychological scars left by the mass emigration, disease and death created by the Famine. Yet the country’s inhabitants appeared, or were at least presumed, to be ready and willing to

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
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From local to transnational

English, with their growing North American associational culture, demonstrated both of these facets of diaspora. Furthermore, their vitality and range soon led to the formation of an overarching, continental structure. There  was nothing new in this, for many such friendly societies, the Orange Order, Catholic confraternities and societies and groups of every conceivable kind maintained national, continental and global structures in what was one of the surest measures of the ability of cultures to survive mass emigration.75 The Orange Order in Ireland, for instance

in The English diaspora in North America
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market in 1954. Efforts to gain a foothold in other markets had not proven successful.67 The electorate was clearly dissatisfied with the grim economic and financial condition of the country, and this contributed to the defeat of de Valera’s government in the general election of 1954. Katzenberger argued that the Second Inter-​Party Government of John A. Costello (1954–​57) lacked economic wisdom so the deleterious economic situation continued and swelled mass emigration.68 The criticisms of the second FRG minister to Ireland, Prill, were more pointed and negative

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73

Irish perception of a lack of German consideration for Ireland in trade matters.152 The German representative’s line was that Ireland was isolated from the Western mainstream by virtue of its independent-​minded foreign policy under Aiken’s direction at the UN and its unbending anti-​partition. Prill contended Ireland’s policy of self-​sufficiency had failed and to survive the cycle of unemployment and mass emigration Ireland had to open up to competition and European integration.153 He maintained that Germany could prevent a dangerous social and political

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
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’s parents moved to the Clyde region as young children, part of the mass emigration from the Scottish Highlands in the face of aggressive landlordism. John was 8 years old when his father, a potter, died of a lung disease common among workers in the pottery trade. His mother took over as the mainstay of the family and, by returning to work as a weaver, she ensured that John was able to stay on at school beyond the normal leaving age and enter higher education. John became a pupil teacher in 1896 and followed that with a teacher’s certificate at the Free Church Teachers

in Making socialists
Economic policy

devaluation was not available; the level of social security benefits blunted the incentive to mass emigration which might otherwise have restored the economic balance; and in general Northern Ireland could no longer offer cheap labour’. The two approaches identified by officials were to increase government aid to specific industrial projects (‘but the difficulty was to find projects deserving support’) and to adopt more attractive regional incentives.88 Characteristically, Mason said relatively little in the ministerial committee on Northern Ireland, ‘positive direct

in No solution
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Sexuality, Catholicism and modernisation in Ireland, 1940–65

employment were nursing for Irish women and construction for men. As Delaney points out, Ireland’s experience of mass emigration in these years was not unique. Irish emigration was part of a pattern of largescale European-wide migration from underdeveloped agricultural regions to the rapidly expanding industrialised economies, particularly from Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece to France, West Germany and the Netherlands. Nevertheless, relative to the size of the population the scale of Irish emigration in the decade was especially severe. In 1954 a group of Irish and

in Impure thoughts
An introduction to the book

in those various trends and indices that register at the more immediate level of everyday experience. The official contention that the 1990s saw the most successful programme of job creation in the history of the state seems more credible when one constantly passes the windows of retail outlets carrying advertisements for new staff. The declaration that the former scourge of mass emigration has been vanquished, moreover, appears persuasive when friends and family are no longer compelled to leave the country and when some of those who left in previous times begin to

in The end of Irish history?