country located in the wrong continent’.10
It was the Great Famine of the mid-nineteenth century and subsequent
massmigrations which, supposedly, converted Ireland from an Atlantic
country to an American one. This shift in cultural geography was sustained,
according to Dunkerely, by a ‘superabundance of myth’11 but was also
validated by the one million Irish people who became US citizens in the
second half of the nineteenth century. From this perspective, it is easy to
leap to another end of century and an economistic reading which would
‘place’ Ireland as an ‘outpost
image and its subject may be
exploited in order to produce affective responses within the spectator.
Where Chapter 1 argues that obscuring the subject of an image may
in some ways weaponise that image, Chapter 2, ‘Two tales of my dying
neighbours’ explores the effect that this obscuring has on the spectator themselves, specifically in their relationship to the other. My case
study is the so-called ‘refugee crisis’, an ongoing set of massmigrations
in which images have frequently been manipulated or overwritten in
order to divorce western spectators from the plight
and grew in popularity in the 1930s and 1940s with massmigration
to the cities. For more information on ranchera music, see
Broyles-González ( 2002 ).
See Chapter 3 for analysis of
Pedro Almodóvar’s use of this song.
Her rendition of ‘Tú me
. The perils of a historical massmigration are raised in
Maria’s accounts of life in a village where so many young men were
forced to emigrate to escape poverty-stricken lives.
Crossing boundaries, in other words the physical act of
crossing or of being faced with a political boundary inscribed in the
landscape, is a process that is both symbolically and affectively linked
to the topics of ongoing
in massmigration; and
the illegal trafficking of drugs and people represent some of the
many challenges to the principle of non-interference, and as such to
the very bases upon which East Asia has built its networks of
relations since 1945. This chapter proposes that the potential for a
shift in the regional approach to security lies precisely in these
areas of interest, and
The impact of the First World War on the 1918–19 influenza pandemic in Ulster
been done during this wave. Measures such as isolating
the sick from the healthy, prevention of massmigrations and
overcrowding should have been implemented but he believed that this
had not been possible due to the demands of war as ‘it was
necessary to carry on and the relentless needs of warfare justified
incurring the risk of spreading infections’. 61 In
fact, it was not
years in Europe, and much longer in the USA, there
has been the phenomenon of a massmigration of people from continental areas
with high demographic rates and scarce, if any, development, desperately
seeking the advantages of belonging to a ‘prized’ citizenship.
This situation has led to a mass of economically and politically very weak
people who are de facto excluded from the actual enjoyment of nearly every
sort of right
Both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are relative newcomers to the superdiversity associated with the contemporary age of massmigration. 4 As a result, the discourse of social inclusion is relatively underdeveloped. In particular, there is a lack of understanding of the processes through which younger members of ethnic and religious minorities negotiate their positions in contemporary Irish society. For young migrants and members of ethnic minority communities, negotiation of inclusion in contemporary Ireland can be a challenging process. Young
NA, H0144/21079, Note on the organisation and activities of the Italian
Fascist Party, 16 April 1936, p. 9.
See Contini, Dear Olivia, p. 193; I. MacDougall, Voices from War. Personal
Recollections of War in our Century by Scottish Men and Women
(Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 1995), pp. 313-14.
Sponza, Divided Loyalties, pp. 45-6.
S. Mastellone, ‘Emigration as an ideological problem for the Fascist state’, in
Bosworth and Ugolini (eds), War, Internment and MassMigration, pp. 121-3.
Gillman, Collar the Lot, p. 148. See also Fortier, Migrant Belongings, p. 67.
, but also, because of the
growth of the railway, transported Germans to emigration ports, such as
Bremen and Hamburg. The main function of these ports was facilitating
transatlantic massmigration. 22
Nevertheless, for much of the nineteenth century Germans
on their way to the USA passed through Great Britain, which played a
major role as a point of transhipment. This helped the development of