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Martyn Hammersley

diversity. Indeed, it was often proposed that people belonging to different groups live in different ‘worlds’, or experience different ‘realities’; and the challenging task was to understand each of these in its own terms. Particularly significant developments here, besides ethnomethodology, were Berger and Luckmann’s (1966) The Social Construction of Reality, which reformulated the sociology of knowledge partly along phenomenological lines (see also Psathas 1973); the increasing importance of symbolic interactionism and the development of labelling theory in the

in The radicalism of ethnomethodology
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Vanessa Heggie

retrospectively, so I have recognised, as far as possible, the pitfalls of making too many assumptions about what sports medicine ‘should’ look like in the past. This is therefore a book in broad sympathy with other accounts of the social construction of disease and health. 4 As the section below will show, when interrogated, sports medicine is revealed as a complex, contingent and heterogeneous set of practices, beliefs and practitioners. Its appearance in the twenty-first century as a coherent object is the consequence of a set of interlaced scientific and social

in A history of British sports medicine
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L’effroi et l’attirance of the wild-woman
Jacqueline Lazú

priority. This does not suggest that respect or empathy should be sacrificed. Only by understanding the social oppression, exploitation and degradation experienced by the sort of people who become freaks can one understand the choices made – if choices even exist – to appear to give consent to being exhibited (or manipulated, used, etc.). So, according to Gerber, in the case of the freak show, the minority-group model serves to join a respect for social process to the power of social constructionism. 40 The commodification of Otherness, as bell

in The last taboo
Transgressing the margins into public spaces to foster adult learning
Tara Hyland-Russell and Janet Groen

personal experience as well as to broader concepts of social construction and negotiation. For instance, in the conversation following the rather dense Miller lecture, students noted with appreciation the acceptance they were offered by the academic audience, even though they held a different view of the relevance of literature than the noted theorist. Students drily wondered if the academic audience would have quite the same appreciation of Miller’s literary deconstructionist theories if they had ever spent a night sleeping on the streets! The range of art forms

in Lifelong learning, the arts and community cultural engagement in the contemporary university
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Tamson Pietsch

and academics across the British settler world. Despite growing bodies of work on imperial networks, postcolonial and transnational exchange, and the social construction of scientific knowledge, this is something that imperial historians, science studies scholars and university historians alike have long neglected. 22 Yet institutions and organisations were chief among the forces that

in Empire of scholars
Max Silverman

that ‘blackness’ is a perception of somatic otherness whose recognition is fundamental for the establishment of disalienated human relations? Rather than provide answers to these questions, Fanon will later present blackness in a very different way. ‘L’Antillais ne se pense pas Noir; il se pense Antillais […] Or, c’est un nègre. Cela, il s’en apercevra une fois en Europe, et quand on parlera de nègres il saura qu’il s’agit de lui aussi bien que du Sénégalais’ (Peau noire: 120–1).10 Here blackness is, once again, simply a European social construction. Before contact

in Frantz Fanon’s 'Black Skin, White Masks
Open Access (free)
Tuur Driesser

. Maps as objects 225 From critical to object-oriented cartography The critical cartography which arose in the 1990s (Crampton and Krygier, 2006) approach maps as texts (Harley, 1989), sign systems (Wood, 1993) and social constructions (Crampton, 2001). In response to the dominance of the communication model, which thought of maps purely as neutral tools to convey geographical information, critical cartography sought to demonstrate how these representations were in fact bound up with politics of power and knowledge. Thus, building on Foucault and Derrida (Harley, 1989

in Time for mapping
Jean-Claude Barbier

-discipline with other fields of research that were to prove more resilient (welfare states, labour market, etc.; Mingione 1986: 150); the third is even more important, because it relates to the diversity of empirical developments across various countries and the diverse social constructions of urban sociology which the researcher discovers despite his firm intention to research universal objects, such as urban life and industrialisation (Mingione 1986: 147–8). In 1993–94, Mingione was visiting professor at the University of California in Los Angeles and he published his

in Western capitalism in transition
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National missile defence (NMD) and IR
Natalie Bormann

uncovers the ‘identity effects’ of NMD.7 This is not an exercise of simply exchanging the existing scientific explanations for socio-political ones. Instead analysing NMD in terms of identity is a means of showing that the defence strategy, though understood as scientific and military in nature, is also profoundly enmeshed in social constructions and identity performances. Central to this is the claim that security is an integral part of articulations of identity, whereby security is taken to mean that the borders, which it constitutes, are also the point from which

in National missile defence and the politics of US identity
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Peter Jones

/30/2013 10:37:53 AM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 07/30/2013, SPi 2 from virtue to venality prevailing attitudes and beliefs about norms, values, public interests and standards of behaviour. Indeed, the social construction of reality is complexly formed and contested both socially and politically.2 In this sense, then, perhaps corruption should be viewed as ‘context dependent’3 as Michel Foucault suggested because it is as much a social and political construction that can change over time as well as from one society or from one state to another. Corrupt exchanges are at

in From virtue to venality