Polarized Approaches to Psychology, Poetics, and Patronage

Antonio’s homoerotic bond with Bassanio and by Portia’s use of male transvestism. The biblical subtext provides a smokescreen and justification for the same-sex bond (i.e., the forbidden true love) at the embattled heart of the play. Judith Rosenheim, ‘Allegorical Commentary in The Merchant of Venice ’, Shakespeare Studies , 24 (1996), 156–210, explains how the allegory is

in Shakespeare and Spenser

fact that its transmission transcends moral judgement, has no place in the romantic, highly stylised world of Mauvais sang . Bertrand Blier’s evocation of Aids in his film of the same year, Tenue de soirée , is also peripheral, but is more germane to both his subject – sexual identity, role-playing and transvestism – and to the style of the film, which is at least partially realistic. During the

in Contemporary French cinema

outside their normal social contexts and in a very abbreviated and reduced form. Even so, when these films are assessed in the light of the comparative ethnography and the historical accounts that have been published subsequently, they can yield valuable insights into the way of life of the subjects, some aspects of which would not have been available to the film-makers themselves. Thus, for example, without his being aware of it, Haddon's material appears to show that there was an element of transvestism in the traditional male initiation ceremony

in Beyond observation

. As a result, ‘her performance is a kind of transvestism’. 66 Here, in contrast to those critics who argue that Chaucer intends us to sympathise with the Wife’s reflexive exposure of clerical misogyny, I will argue that Chaucer himself satirises her performance. Even though Alisoun relies on familiar clerical and scholastic modes of argument, such as appealing to traditional

in Chaucer in context
Recent fiction

adventures – not least the transvestism of Damien himself – introducing new questions and explorations into the theme of transformation and mutable identity, and engaging more directly with issues of Anishinaabe cultural sovereignty. While Catholicism, particularly its emphasis on revelation and devotion, is central to the plot of Last Report , Damien’s faith wavers. And of course as Pauline, like the saintly archetype she ironically aspires to, insists on notions of perfection, Damien, like Nanapush, more closely reflects the imperfections of the Anishinaabe culture

in Louise Erdrich

Two distinct portraits of a ‘fairy queen’ imply contrary views of human nature and contrary aesthetics. In Spenser’s epic a mystic Gloriana draws noble heroes to realise the twelve virtues, perfecting the soul in Godlikeness. In Shakespeare’s comic stage-play a sensually potent Titania evokes a different fairy realm. Directly experienced, her bodily splendor and witty combative speeches arouse desire not just in the privileged but in rude commoners, who commandeer the play’s most engaging scenes. Instead of vying with Spenser’s elite quests for morality in an intellectual heaven-based allegory, Shakespeare views morality in all social classes, the humbler earthy sort matching the more pretentious. Both are ego-driven yet communally civil. This ironic engagement with Spenser’s ‘supreme fiction’ wondrously expands Shakespeare’s own artistry. Equally polarized are the poets’ views of self-love as a touchstone of human psychology. Like Calvin and Luther, Spenser discredits self-love as shameful, both in monarchs like Lucifera and in louts like Braggadocchio, causing Redcrosse’s wretched fall and Guyon’s helpless faint. In contrast, Shakespeare’s characters, noble and vulgar, show a positive form of self-love if carefully managed, as observed by Aristotle, Aquinas, and Primaudaye.

in Renaissance psychologies