Irresistible to Women’, Publican, 3 July 1995; MORI, Public
Attitudes to Pubs (June 1984), p. 50.
5 MORI, Public Attitudes to Pubs (June 1984), p. vii; Interscan, Ltd, Attitude Survey
on Pub Going Habits and Brewery Control and Ownership of Public Houses (Aug.
1970), p. 13. This was a rare survey that analysed class, age, gender and types of
6 Deidre McCloskey, ‘Paid Work’, in Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska (ed.), Women in
Twentieth-Century Britain (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2001), pp. 168–70.
7 Heather E. Joshi, Richard Layard and Susan
industry, see Jutta Schwarzkopf, ‘Gender and Technology: Inverting Established
Patterns. The Lancashire Cotton Weaving Industry at the Start of the TwentiethCentury’, in Margaret Walsh (ed.), Working Out Gender: Perspectives from Labour
History (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999), pp. 151–66.
76 [Sydney O. Nevile], ‘The Ideal House’, House of Whitbread, 2 (Jan. 1926), p. 43.
77 Gourvish and Wilson, British Brewing Industry, table VIII; Evidence of the Royal
Commission on Licensing, 12 Nov. 1930, p. 2107.
78 Ibid., pp. 2104, 2126, 2130; Brewers’ Journal, 15
I. G. C. Hutchison, Scottish Politics in
the TwentiethCentury (Basingstoke, 2001), p. 71.
Ewen A. Cameron, ‘The Politics of the
Union in an Age of Unionism’ in T. M. Devine (ed.)
Scotland and the Union 1707–2007 (Edinburgh,
2008), pp. 126, 132
21 Harding, ‘The Irish issue’, p. 299.
22 A. J. P. Taylor, English history: 1914–1945 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1965),
23 D. V. McDermott, ‘The British labour movement and Ireland 1905–1925’,
unpublished MA, University College Galway, National University of Ireland,
1979, p. 483.
24 Daily Herald, 3 April 1922.
25 Tim Pat Coogan, Ireland in the twentiethcentury (London, Arrow Books,
2003), pp. 46–7.
26 Daily Herald, 27 March 1923.
Labour and Irish revolution
27 Daily Herald, 13 March 1923.
28 The Times, 13 March 1923.
29 The Times, 13 March 1923
Understanding the psychology of selling alcohol in the 1980s–90s
David W. Gutzke
important findings, several outsiders
rejected the sterile attitudes of conventional drinking and instead grasp the
possibilities of a changing market, vividly demonstrated by the wine bar
revolution. Nobody did more to redefine the culture of public drinking in
the late twentiethcentury than Tim Martin and Crispin Tweddle, two entrepreneurs who not only shared ambition and business acumen but recognized
the commercial potential of another group of outsiders, women. Martin and
Tweddle, far from responding to new drinking habits in pubs, created an
entirely new subculture
captive as their
overwhelming male patrons to sexist attitudes.
1 David Kynaston, Family Britain, 1951–57: Tales of a New Jerusalem (London:
Bloomsbury, 2009); Judith Harwin and Shirley Otto, ‘Women, Alcohol and the
Screen’, in Jim Cook and Mike Lewington (eds), Images of Alcoholism (London:
British Film Institute, 1979), pp. 46–7.
2 University of Sussex, FR 3029, Mass-Observation Archives, A Report on Drinking
Habits, Aug. 1948, p. 164; David Nash and David Reeder, with Peter Jones and
Richard Rodger, Leicester in the TwentiethCentury (Stroud: Alan Sutton
remarked Tony Avis (Author’s interview with Tony Avis, 26 July 1997).
34 Of the 159 publicans in York in 1929, for example, just 27 were women (Mike
Race, Public Houses, Private Lives: An Oral History of Life in York Pubs in the
Mid-twentiethCentury (York: Voyager Publications, 1999), p. 64).
35 Michele Cheaney, ‘Jobs for the Girls’, Publican Newspaper, 28 April 1997; Robert
Metcalfe, ‘Wanted: Women Who Can Run Pubs’, Publican, 11 Nov. 1989; Stanley
Wright, Running Your Own Pub (London: Hutchinson, 1984), p. 8; Lorna Harrison, ‘Those Were the Days
and so dominant players in the market, vanished, save
as manufacturers of beer itself. Most large breweries, except for Greene King
and Fullers, had in turn been taken over by multinational concerns. Recent
creations of the late twentiethcentury, pubcos lacked the long tradition of
upholding the old masculine order, though enough sexism persisted to retard
radical changes. The pub itself, however, had lost its centrality as a leisure
venue. According to Peach Factory’s Eating Out and the Consumer Report,
2008, twice as many people watched television (89 per cent
the ‘decade of dance’ (1988–98), establishing
this generation as the most prevalent drug users in the twentiethcentury. Illicit
drug consumption among young adults (sixteen to twenty-four years) grew
slowly but steadily from the 1960s, doubling every decade, until, in the early
1990s, the numbers doubled, reaching one-half of the entire group. The consequences of the dancing decade were horrific: heroin addicts had grown from
5000 (1975) to 280,000 (mid-2000s). Overall numbers proved as disturbing
to critics as the inclusion in this new dance subculture of girls
even deeper roots that were entirely
distinct from and unrelated to colonial national movements
elsewhere. But on closer examination, Devine’s core claims
fail to convince. The suggestion that Scottish emotional attachment
to empire had largely faded by the mid-twentiethcentury is
particularly contentious, and has recently been challenged by Bryan
Glass in his path