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Irresistible to Women’, Publican, 3 July 1995; MORI, Public Attitudes to Pubs (June 1984), p. 50. 5 MORI, Public Attitudes to Pubs (June 1984), p. vii; Interscan, Ltd, Attitude Survey on Pub Going Habits and Brewery Control and Ownership of Public Houses (Aug. 1970), p. 13. This was a rare survey that analysed class, age, gender and types of drinking establishments. 6 Deidre McCloskey, ‘Paid Work’, in Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska (ed.), Women in Twentieth-Century Britain (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2001), pp. 168–70. 7 Heather E. Joshi, Richard Layard and Susan

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

house 49 industry, see Jutta Schwarzkopf, ‘Gender and Technology: Inverting Established Patterns. The Lancashire Cotton Weaving Industry at the Start of the Twentieth Century’, in Margaret Walsh (ed.), Working Out Gender: Perspectives from Labour History (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999), pp. 151–66. 76 [Sydney O. Nevile], ‘The Ideal House’, House of Whitbread, 2 (Jan. 1926), p. 43. 77 Gourvish and Wilson, British Brewing Industry, table VIII; Evidence of the Royal Commission on Licensing, 12 Nov. 1930, p. 2107. 78 Ibid., pp. 2104, 2126, 2130; Brewers’ Journal, 15

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
Bringing Africa to the Scottish public

. 16 I. G. C. Hutchison, Scottish Politics in the Twentieth Century (Basingstoke, 2001), p. 71. 17 Ewen A. Cameron, ‘The Politics of the Union in an Age of Unionism’ in T. M. Devine (ed.) Scotland and the Union 1707–2007 (Edinburgh, 2008), pp. 126, 132

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
From investigation to deportation

 1921. 21 Harding, ‘The Irish issue’, p. 299. 22 A.  J.  P. Taylor, English history:  1914–1945 (Oxford, Clarendon, 1965), p. 236. 23 D. V. McDermott, ‘The British labour movement and Ireland 1905–1925’, unpublished MA, University College Galway, National University of Ireland, 1979, p. 483. 24 Daily Herald, 3 April 1922. 25 Tim Pat Coogan, Ireland in the twentieth century (London, Arrow Books, 2003), pp. 46–7. 26 Daily Herald, 27 March 1923. Labour and Irish revolution 27 Daily Herald, 13 March 1923. 28 The Times, 13 March 1923. 29 The Times, 13 March 1923

in The British Labour Party and twentieth-century Ireland
Understanding the psychology of selling alcohol in the 1980s–90s

important findings, several outsiders rejected the sterile attitudes of conventional drinking and instead grasp the possibilities of a changing market, vividly demonstrated by the wine bar revolution. Nobody did more to redefine the culture of public drinking in the late twentieth century than Tim Martin and Crispin Tweddle, two entrepreneurs who not only shared ambition and business acumen but recognized the commercial potential of another group of outsiders, women. Martin and Tweddle, far from responding to new drinking habits in pubs, created an entirely new subculture

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
Abstract only
Wooing women in the 1950s–60s

captive as their overwhelming male patrons to sexist attitudes. Notes 1 David Kynaston, Family Britain, 1951–57: Tales of a New Jerusalem (London: Bloomsbury, 2009); Judith Harwin and Shirley Otto, ‘Women, Alcohol and the Screen’, in Jim Cook and Mike Lewington (eds), Images of Alcoholism (London: British Film Institute, 1979), pp. 46–7. 2 University of Sussex, FR 3029, Mass-Observation Archives, A Report on Drinking Habits, Aug. 1948, p. 164; David Nash and David Reeder, with Peter Jones and Richard Rodger, Leicester in the Twentieth Century (Stroud: Alan Sutton

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

a policy’, remarked Tony Avis (Author’s interview with Tony Avis, 26 July 1997). 34 Of the 159 publicans in York in 1929, for example, just 27 were women (Mike Race, Public Houses, Private Lives: An Oral History of Life in York Pubs in the Mid-twentieth Century (York: Voyager Publications, 1999), p. 64). 35 Michele Cheaney, ‘Jobs for the Girls’, Publican Newspaper, 28 April 1997; Robert Metcalfe, ‘Wanted: Women Who Can Run Pubs’, Publican, 11 Nov. 1989; Stanley Wright, Running Your Own Pub (London: Hutchinson, 1984), p. 8; Lorna Harrison, ‘Those Were the Days

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

and so dominant players in the market, vanished, save as manufacturers of beer itself. Most large breweries, except for Greene King and Fullers, had in turn been taken over by multinational concerns. Recent creations of the late twentieth century, pubcos lacked the long tradition of upholding the old masculine order, though enough sexism persisted to retard radical changes. The pub itself, however, had lost its centrality as a leisure venue. According to Peach Factory’s Eating Out and the Consumer Report, 2008, twice as many people watched television (89 per cent

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

the ‘decade of dance’ (1988–98), establishing this generation as the most prevalent drug users in the twentieth century. Illicit drug consumption among young adults (sixteen to twenty-four years) grew slowly but steadily from the 1960s, doubling every decade, until, in the early 1990s, the numbers doubled, reaching one-half of the entire group. The consequences of the dancing decade were horrific: heroin addicts had grown from 5000 (1975) to 280,000 (mid-2000s). Overall numbers proved as disturbing to critics as the inclusion in this new dance subculture of girls

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
The shadow of empire in devolutionary politics

even deeper roots that were entirely distinct from and unrelated to colonial national movements elsewhere. But on closer examination, Devine’s core claims fail to convince. The suggestion that Scottish emotional attachment to empire had largely faded by the mid-twentieth century is particularly contentious, and has recently been challenged by Bryan Glass in his path

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century