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similar levels of acknowledgement of personal prejudice among men and women. But the most striking difference was based on religious belief, with 36 per cent of Protestants willing to admit some degree of prejudice compared to 21 per cent of Catholics. The responses indicate that a large majority of the population are aware of the existence of racial prejudice in Northern Ireland, and a sizeable percentage considers themselves to be racially prejudiced, albeit respondents are more likely to acknowledge that prejudice exists than they are to take personal responsibility

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
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to reach into the wider community. Women also shaped these standards: many were appointed as nurses because the local superintendents had observed the excellent care they had taken of their own children. Various POS committees held up their work as an example for others to emulate. At a time when respectability meant everything, women no doubt competed for the coveted title of ‘good nurse’, and thus ‘good mother’, which elevated their status in their church and parish. Despite the religious rivalry and bitter divide that overshadowed their respective work, both

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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population identifying as Catholic in the 2011 Census (CSO 2012h). The drop in the number of Irish nationals identifying as Catholic has been offset by the large number of Catholic immigrants to Ireland: for example, from Poland, Lithuania, the Philippines, India and Brazil. On one level, then, recent immigration to Ireland perpetuates the already existing dominance of Catholicism. However, it has also resulted in a growing diversity of religious beliefs and practices. There has long been a Muslim presence in Ireland, but the number of people who identify as Muslim has

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century

moments in the Second World War. A similar fluidity in the significance of clothing occurs in religious identity. In medieval and Catholic Europe, simple dress was part of the identity of monks, friars, and nuns, and if there was colour, it was often black or brown. The Protestant reaction in and after the European Reformation distanced itself from what it saw as the excesses of the Catholic church by adopting its own version of the very visual signs of Catholic monasticism: simple clothes, absence of colour, preference for black

in Cultivating political and public identity
The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s

more recent Catholic migrants. This reality came to the fore when O’Connell and the Repealers in the United States fell out over the issue of slavery. Always an opponent of slavery, O’Connell created controversy in the US when, in 1842, he supported a petition initiated by the Hibernian Anti-Slavery Society addressed ‘from the People of Ireland to their Countrymen and Women in America’ calling on them to oppose slavery and ‘unite with the abolitionists’. Using the logistical machinery of the Repeal campaign, the petition circulated to meetings throughout Ireland and

in British and Irish diasporas

4147 Inglis–Are the Irish different_BB_Layout 1 29/07/2014 09:26 Page 65 7 The Irish family – different or not? Tony Fahey William Carleton gained a reputation as a literary figure in the 1830s for his Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, a series of whimsical but informative sketches of Irish rural folk life of his day. Much of what he wrote had to do with family life, but nothing told as much of the family patterns of his times as his own origins. He grew up the son of a Catholic tenant farmer in Co. Tyrone who, as an entry in the Encyclopaedia

in Are the Irish different?
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Irish emigration and Stafford

impartible inheritance, which transmitted tenancy to a single, normally male, child with the rest of the children being forced to find alternative work, usually abroad. The so-called ‘devotional revolution’ of the Church imposed its stricter religious discipline mainly through women, but at the same time emphasised biblical teachings on women’s subordination.30 Another factor undermining pre-industrial family and community life was the declining use of the Irish language. By the 1830s the advancing tide of English speech was sweeping over the Castlerea area and by 1851 it

in Divergent paths

kalu in Mauritius because of the lack of coconut palms (and the consequently high cost of purchasing coconuts), but nor did I come across kalu during my trip to Seychelles, where I was told it was made only for special occasions.8 In Mauritius, several Chagossian women prepared baka months in advance of Catholic festivals and other celebrations such as New Year, and commented that the long fermentation process distinguishes Chagossian baka from that made on Rodrigues. Thus they commented on the similarities among and differences between Creole cuisine of various

in Chagos islanders in Mauritius and the UK
A new approach

continuing interest in Irish women but work has tended to focus on specific issues in the public role of women, for example women and the Catholic Church, women in (paid) employment or the public role of women in running networks of mutual aid.11 Paul O’Leary has more sensitively identified the interdependence between public and private life in discussing the significance of gender roles in the cult of Victorian respectability amongst the Irish.12 This link is important, and what is needed is more evidence about the ‘private’ role of women. Adopting a family approach

in Divergent paths
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, at best, and the ­normative foundations for decisions remain largely unexplored. The stifling impact of religious ethos, in particular that of Catholicism, is often cited as an explanation for the lack of debate around ethical issues in healthcare in Ireland in the past (McDonnell and Allison, 2006). However, given the increasingly secularised nature of contemporary Irish society (Inglis, 1998), it is no longer feasible to attribute an ongoing lack of debate to this source. Moreover, simple stereotyping based on conceptions of Catholicism or secularism is largely

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare