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happening and the atypicality of photography. The ‘art’ of photography: composition, specific situation, effects of light and shadow, particular ‘types’ and situations of ‘genre’, visual angle, etc. (In truth, the issue here is not one of photography’s artistic development preceding film but, rather, its parallel or even later development: of a result separate from the artistic

in Lukácsian film theory and cinema
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matter how ungovernable they may appear. In Histoire(s), because signs multiply and proliferate in abundance, they become dense and opaque. For example, Rossellini, Hitchcock, Jerry Lewis, neorealism, Lang, innocence, beauty, violence, childhood, monstrosities, hands, eyes, the camera, the gun, focusing, aiming, writing, spying, the Holocaust, Sarajevo, Mozart, Hollywood, Murnau, Dreyer, Welles, death, Rembrandt, Manet, greed, photography, technology, light, voyaging, discovery, experiment, time, control, the Nouvelle Vague, dancing, executions, massacres, and History

in Film modernism
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Cinema saved my life

’s development from delinquent teenager to thirty-something divorcee, confirmed the generalised belief that Truffaut’s work could be read as a form of autobiography, a belief supported by the uncanny physical resemblance between the director and Jean-Pierre Léaud, the actor who played Doinel, once Leaud reached maturity. La Nuit américaine (1973), in which Truffaut played the part of a film-director and represented on-screen many of

in François Truffaut
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sufficiency of film. Histoire(s) is that demonstration of such insufficiency in practice, of too much and not enough, which it exemplifies and denies. It exemplifies it because it provokes permanent dissatisfaction (nothing is complete). It denies it because it creates perpetual desire (infinite possibilities). The two together are the motor of the film if not of the cinema. Film and photography are reproductive, tied to imitation. The ‘modern’ film and the ‘avant-garde’ film, including the New American Cinema of the late 1950s and 1960s, sought to free itself from such

in Film modernism
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photography and later film, would better satisfy. What occurred was not an either/or, either reality or artifice, reality or abstraction, but rather a play between the two, and hence an awareness of both at the heart of painting so that being in the one place (of experience, of reality) necessarily led to the other (the image, consciousness), as with Godard’s comment (and practice) whereby the document becomes fiction and fiction the document, neither of them stable and brought together less as an opposition than a difficult-to-­define difference because of their closeness

in Film modernism
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Naples is a Battlefield (1944); The Bespoke Overcoat (1955)

Moulin Rouge and Beat the Devil , Jeanie Sims, was to become Clayton’s script editor on all his films; the editor of the Huston films, Ralph Kemplen, was to edit The Bespoke Overcoat and Room at the Top ; the camera operator on Beat the Devil , Freddie Francis, was to be Clayton’s director of photography on Room at the Top and The Innocents (which I will recklessly declare as the finest piece

in Jack Clayton

hobby socially. 22 Portraits in action hint at an emerging awareness of movement bringing a distinctive visual aesthetic. They differed from static views of people facing or sideways to the camera that seem to link back to the long exposures and poses of studio still photography. Advocates of using colour film warned about upsetting relatives too: ‘Colour wins hands down in family films … If I take a family film in monochrome

in Amateur film
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about Marilyn as much as to think about painting, film, photography, images, methods, the ways of the text, how it was made and not what it signified. Rossellini always had a general idea of the film he wanted before it was made, but never had a shooting script, never a découpage, never the film carefully laid out beforehand. His films developed as they were being made at the moment of their making rather than being a putting into image of a prior plan. He relied on the setting he had chosen to suggest how scenes were to be shot. The decision was, for the most part

in Film modernism

will spend the remaining part of the film torn between the insistence of everyone around her that the strange events she claims to have witnessed are the fruits of her imagination and her determination to prove the events to be real. The film is built on this uncertainty. Bava’s eerie photography and camerawork succeed in destabilising easy impressions of commonsense reality while grounding Nora’s point of view. From the beginning Bava avails himself of a variety of generic registers, shifting from gangster and crime films (drug smuggling at the airport and the

in Capital and popular cinema
Palimpsests of genre, palimpsests of violence

. Jorge Sánchez-Cabezudo’s directorial debut, La noche de ¿os girasoles/The Night of the Sunflowers, was both a critical and commercial hit in Spain. As Carmen Herrero has observed, the film was among the Spanish feature films with the highest box-office takings of 2006 ( 2010 : 126). Set in the heart of rural Spain, The Night of the Sunflowers explores the fading legacy of the Spanish countryside in

in Spanish cinema 1973–2010