This made politics the nexus of history, but other subjects were relevant
insofar as they had a bearing on the actions of people. In exemplifying
these other subjects, Bryce revealed his personal preferences: history
‘deals with language as evidence of the relations of races to one another,
or as a force in uniting or disjoining them. She finds in literature and art
illustrations of the productive power and the taste of a nation, and notes
the effect they exercise in developing national life.’29 This focus on the life
of nations, on tracing the rise and fall of grand
also run FLE and other socio-vocational courses (theatre, photography, art,
computing and so on) for asylum seekers and victims of trafficking. Both
projects attract large numbers of women who are motivated to attend courses
despite having childcare responsibilities and long distances to travel. In
addition, both projects adopt a gender-sensitive approach in all their activities including the monitoring and evaluation of their work.
Refugees on the other hand, have many of the same rights to further and
higher education and other vocational courses as French
advertised as such, Browne explained that the Taliban
was not a ‘generic, homogeneous organisation’, and claimed that some
of its members were ‘capable of being persuaded’ to participate in the
democratic process. Attempting to spin the rising levels of violence as a
sign of success, telling the Defence Committee that ‘the nature of the insurgency’ was ‘a function of the progress that we have made’, the Defence
Secretary explained that ‘[p]art of what we are seeking to do is to create
A road well travelled
an environment where people can make that very transition
conflict studies literature has primarily drawn on Certeau. His framework is
appropriate to theorise hybridity, yet it leaves many aspects of resistance undefined. Certeau analyses two kinds of practices which he links to a Clausewitzean
understanding of strategy and tactic in war. ‘Strategy’ is that of the general. It
represents power (‘a business, an army, a city, a scientific institution’) and its
practices relate to the delimitation of a place from which external threats and
targets can be controlled and managed (Certeau 1984: 37). A ‘tactic’ is ‘the art
2002: Art. 1.c).
History and present of ‘Africa’s World War’
15 Unless noted, general information in this and subsequent paragraphs in this section relies
on Stearns (2008, 2012a); UN Group of Experts (2010b; 2012a; 2012b).
16 There has been debate as to whether they were the same movement or not. However, all
official communiqués are signed as CNDP–M-23 (M23 2012). Jason Stearns argues that
their leadership, funding and positions, especially in Masisi and Rutshuru, make them
the same, with the M-23 having less social support than the CNDP in its heyday
beginning of the first article:
Art. 1. The Institute of International Law is an exclusively scientific
association, and with no official character. Its objects are –
(1) To favour the progress of International Law by seeking to
become the organ of the legal conscience of the civilised world.
(2) To formulate the general principles of the science, as well as the
rules that result from it, and to spread the knowledge of it.
(3) To give its aid to any serious attempt at gradual and progressive
Behind this conception of the Institute’s role, we see an
. K. Webster, The Study of Nineteenth Century Diplomacy (London, 1915);
C. K. Webster, The Congress of Vienna (London, 1920); C. K. Webster, The
League of Nations in Theory and Practice (London, 1932). For a good treatment
of Webster, see Ian Hall, ‘The art and practice of a diplomatic historian: Sir
Charles Webster, 1886–1961’, International Politics, 24 (2005), 470–90.
85 Alfred Zimmern, The Study of International Relations (Oxford, 1931), p. 5.
86 For a flavour of Fisher’s internationalist views, see H. A. L. Fisher, The War – Its
Causes and Issues (London
anderen räubern mit Fangflotten in den Fischbeständen der Somalier – “ein Desaster
für Somalias Küste, die Umwelt, die Bevölkerung”, sagt Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, der
Uno-Sonderbeauftragte für Somalia. Aufgebrachte somalische Fischer vertrieben früh
ausländische Boote mit Kalaschnikow-Feuer’).
114 ‘Wir Piraten’, Spiegel, no. 3, 12 January 2009, p. 130 (‘hohe Arbeitslosigkeit).
115 ‘Die Verbrecher der Meere’, Focus, no. 47, 17 November 2008, p. 186 (‘Eine Lösung des
Problems sei erst absehbar, wenn an Stelle des von Clans dominierten Somalia “eine Art
Union, Drawing up the Convention
Relating to Extradition between the Member States of the European Union (Brussels, September
Conclusions of the Tampere European Council on 15–16 October 1999 (Brussels, October
For a full list, see Art. 2 (2) of the Council of the European Union, Framework Decision of
13 June 2002 on the European Arrest Warrant and the Surrender Procedures between Member
States (Brussels, June 2002).
Report from the Commission on the European Arrest Warrant and the Surrender Procedures
between Member States (Brussels, February 2005), p