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The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution

range of policy areas dealt with by the Union through para-constitutional communitarisation. This process has led to institutional and procedural differentiation and a subsequent widening of the functional scope of integration in the form of sectoral differentiation. Moreover, this enlargement of the EU’s policymaking scope has brought into play a growing number of governmental and non-governmental bodies dealing with public policy. We can also observe an increasing actor differentiation. Within the individual Member States there is an ongoing reaction to these

in Fifteen into one?

relationship between speech and the graphic form of writing will not, however, hold up to scrutiny. The reason that writing is not subservient to speech (and vice versa) depends on the fact that they work in totally different media. Speech operates through sound while writing and other graphic forms depend on the utilisation of a surface: ‘Functionally, it is true that writing may become an extension of speech

in Reading the graphic surface

tower-house-type structures. As has been discussed, sometimes confusing terminology is employed to skirt categorisation issues. This pattern of enthusiastic building also transcends space – differences in urban and rural architecture have been repeatedly discussed in a late medieval English context (for example, see the brief summary in Grenville ( 2008 )) – but tower houses are common to both environments in Ireland. There must have been something universal in their appeal and functionality. Even if most boroughs remained rural in essence

in The Irish tower house
A sociology of the amateur

research programmes on food. In this introduction we wish to draw the reader’s attention not to those results but rather to the various ways in which different authors address the question of taste. We also wish to point out the difficulties posed by the articulation and synthesis of those diverse approaches, due primarily to the incompatibility of some of the hypotheses mobilised. This review1 considers five fairly precise meanings of the word ‘taste’: taste as a biological need; as social differentiation of attraction towards things; as a relationship of perception

in Qualities of food

which, de Lumley observes, served any functional purpose alone but which together suggest primitive aesthetic sensibilities: ‘Hominisation thus passed a new threshold in the path towards greater complexity: the emergence of the sense of harmony.’8 In like fashion, beyond its purpose in cooking food and thus irrevocably changing the hominid diet and all that followed, the discovery of fire had other multiple effects, from providing light and warmth and facilitating migration to colder parts of the world, to the use of fire in hardening spear-points. However, de Lumley

in The extended self
Abstract only

sexual themes are functionally irrelevant, or for any products targeted at pre-­ pubescent children (Papadopoulos, 2010). Children are targeted by brands of all kinds. There are brands that are made especially for different children’s markets. There are brands that are made for the whole family where it is known that kids often have considerable influence over brand choices. There are also brands targeted at adults that Kids and branding23 nevertheless are known to children because of their entertaining marketing campaigns. Although advertisers of adult

in Kids and branding in a digital world

previously been undertaken in households. Of these, firms, the specialist units of production, were the most important. Differentiation drew a line between the household and economic activity. Kinship relations also undergo functional specialisation, becoming dominated by a system of small nuclear family units. The modern ‘thin’ family was adapted to the need for social and geographical mobility. The primary responsibility for household support came to rest on the male head, the ‘breadwinner’, whose ‘job’ linked the family to the economy from which it had become separated

in Making work more equal

indication of the concern with regional issues during the 1960s was the creation of an inter-departmental committee to advise on regional policy. Later, Regional Development Organisations (RDOs) were established (in the midwest in 1968 and in the other planning regions a year later). These bodies served a coordinating and dissemination role but again lacked financial and functional power. Despite these limitations the RDOs impacted in the regions, particularly in the east and Cork where an urban transport strategy was developed (Bannon and Lombard, 1996). There was

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland

through the charge of hypocrisy. In this there is a clear parallel to the symbolic economy of war reporting discussed in the previous chapter. Positing a collective basis to individuation means that there is at least some stability to the practices and symbols through which it proceeds. If we look at the riots and their media coverage in strictly functional terms, we can say that they acted as a means of access to an established set of practices of position-taking, whose enactment has the dual purpose of establishing legitimate occupation of a position of authority, and

in The politics of war reporting
Abstract only
Membership, privilege, and place

as a geographical fusion and functional separation.40 As Maitland noted, pre-modern institutions performed several functions and one and the same institution might be a legislative assembly, a governmental council and a court of law.41 Granting, withholding, and upholding of rights took place between a patchwork of often competing courts, where competence and jurisdiction was divided by custom and historical accretion rather than functionally. Rights and duties, on the other hand, were differentiated according to status, and status also determined the kind of

in Supranational Citizenship