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and new governments responding to reformist impulses from within or without or seeking to create a new ‘open’ approach after a scandal (Berliner 2014, Darch and Underwood 2010). Politicians have many motives for introducing FOI, from the simple politics of wrong footing or neutralising opponents to the longerterm, calculating intention of securing access to information when they are out of power (Berliner 2014). Context is also key, as laws are frequently passed amid wider change or as a response to a particular problem. As well as calculation and context there are

in The politics of freedom of information
A legacy and an assault from within

9 Ireland and New Zealand: a legacy and an assault from within This chapter examines two very different cases. FOI in Ireland emerged from a secretive culture propelled by scandal and very specific coalition politics of the early 1990s. Bequeathed to a new government, it was severely cut back and then rebooted. New Zealand’s Official Information Act (OIA) represents perhaps the most unusual story, of a committee of the great and the good, composed of the normally ‘vested interests’, pushing a radical and decisively different sort of openness law. Ireland

in The politics of freedom of information
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Sweden and the USA represent divergent archetypes with competing influence on the international stage. The analysis shows that the American model upheld patriarchal-familism, marriage and male-breadwinning through a combination of laissez-faire and punitive approaches to fatherhood. On the other hand, the Swedish model dismantled patriarchy and revolutionised the gender relations of parenting. The Swedish model advanced the revolution in the social politics of fatherhood and parenting through the individualisation and non-transferability of parental benefits, including

in Between two worlds of father politics

1 Welfare, gender and fatherhood Introduction This chapter highlights a paradox within academic debates about national variations in the social politics of fatherhood. On the one hand, it portrays the mid-1970s as a turning point in the social politics of fatherhood; first, through the invention of exponentially punitive child support enforcement programmes by the USA in 1974 (Hansen, 1999), and second, through the introduction by Sweden of father-inclusive parental leave insurance schemes also in 1974 (Klinth, 2008). Yet, on the other hand, the chapter shows

in Between two worlds of father politics
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Survival and afterlife

success, as the radical group overrode and took potential resistance by surprise. It produced a political vision of FOI as a giving-away of power, in a policy loaded with symbolism – with no government veto, no broad Cabinet exclusion and a strong harm test. The White Paper encapsulated the radical, anti-establishment ideas of constitutional reform, imbued with ideas of empowerment, democracy and change. The second stage took a very different form. The loss of the radical group’s power and new leadership meant ‘normalcy’ returning. The draft Bill proposals were a much

in The politics of freedom of information
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The retreat becomes a rout

limiting features. Underneath was a changing notion and new ‘justifying narrative’ of what FOI meant. The law moved from a proposal driven by certain radical features to a broader, less threatening, legalistic vision of The 1999 draft Bill: the retreat becomes a rout 75 a balanced law aimed at services and delivery rather than at central government itself. Yet time and politics allowed FOI to escape from the committee. The passage, even in its heavily scaled-back form, rested once more on a political calculation. A compromise that the law would be implemented only

in The politics of freedom of information
The development of FOI in Britain

accurate information, and are permitted the free exchange of their views and their opinions: That is essential to good government. (Hansard Corpus; Informationrightsandwrongs 8/112015) However, as Table 2.1 shows, there was little interest or mention of either FOI or Open Government until the 1960s. The politics of freedom of information 24 Table 2.1  Mentions of ‘freedom of information’ and ‘open government’ in the UK Parliament, 1880–2000 Year Mentions of ‘freedom of information’ Mentions of ‘open government’ 1880 1910 1920 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

in The politics of freedom of information

This article will describe the contemporary scientific techniques used to excavate and identify the dead bodies of disappeared detainees from the Uruguayan dictatorship. It will highlight the developments that have led to increased success by forensic anthropologists and archaeologists in uncovering human remains, as well as their effects, both social and political, on promoting the right to the truth and mechanisms of transitional justice.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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Full-time breadwinners and part-time fathers

chapter highlights The United Kingdom 65 a shift in epistemological thinking towards a ‘Nordic turn’ in the British politics of parental leave, and signs of battle fatigue in following the Americans into a cost-recovery model of child support. The changing nature of fatherhood and parental leave debates A study of male attitudes towards parental leave in Great Britain explained that parental leave was introduced as a legal right for workers under the Employment Relations Act in 1999 following the European Union Directive on Parental Leave in 1996 (Dermott, 2001

in Between two worlds of father politics
Asymmetric warfare

provided momentum, expertise and publicity, bringing pressure to bear both inside and outside Parliament, often simultaneously. The alliance sought to frame, or reframe, discussion of the policy back to a more political and radical view of FOI. The radicals pushed the symbolic power of FOI and its positive effects for the government and Britain’s democracy, while framing any weakening or failure as a ‘betrayal’ not only of the government’s promise but also of its commitment to democratic renewal and political radicalism. Yet the power of the radicals was limited. First

in The politics of freedom of information