that Sweetman had
‘been using the Sinn Fein clubs and workmen’s clubs to stimulate an agitation’.38 The parish priest of Gorey also objected to
Sweetman’s activities. Underlying the diocesan clergy’s irritation
was the fact that Sweetman had been ‘interfering with the local
church by taking congregations away from the local parishes’.39
The presence in a religious house of a priest who engaged in
republican activism did not necessarily imply that the entire community held the same views. The Jesuit Father William Hackett
36 MA, BMH, WS1731, John King, pp. 13–14. ICD
behave – in other words, a
This book is an analysis of Britain’s Chief Rabbis over the ninety years
between 1880 and 1970, and the impact they made upon Anglo-Jewry’s
religious character. In attempting this analysis I examine the theologies
of the Chief Rabbis and their contemporaries in depth. So much attention will be paid to theology because, I argue, the key to understanding
why individuals took certain actions, why they opposed some individuals and movements and supported others, is differing theologies.
Two synagogues could hold a near-identical service
churches in England,
Scotland and Ireland, sustained by a consensus that secure and stable
government required religious conformity throughout the three kingdoms. By
1711, however, Episcopacy had been abolished in Scotland and Presbyterianism
re-established; Protestant dissenters in England had been granted religious
toleration in 1689; and, in Ireland, the rapid growth of Protestant nonconformist
‘Of Dispaire’ and fols 309–11 about fear.
TAMING WORLDLY EMOTIONS AND APPETITES
58 ADN, Ms 20H-10, fol. 277.
59 Ibid., fol. 312.
60 Ibid., fols 309–10.
61 Ibid., fol. 314.
62 2 Corinthians 4:6.
63 Baker, in Weld-Blundell (ed.), Contemplative Prayer, p. 177.
64 Ibid., p. 98.
65 Gertrude More, The Spiritual Exercises of the Most Vertuous and Religious D. Gertrude More of the holy Order of S. Bennet and the English
Congregation of our ladies of Comfort in Cambray, she called them
Jews in Portsmouth during the long eighteenth century
central Europe’ – as well as English. 19 Nevertheless, it has been emphasised from the earliest historiography of Portsmouth Jewry that ‘members of the congregation were agreed and united in their attachment to the Synagogue, and to everything conducive to its interests’. 20 The obvious dangers, however, of treating Portsmouth Jews as a unified and acquiescent minority were revealed at a religious level through the three schisms that divided the community in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This chapter will deal only with the first which occurred in 1766
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were nurtured by religious belief,
and the eighteenth century would be little different in this respect.
Dissenters of various sorts were legion, but non-believers and nonbelieving natural philosophers remained quite rare. In the absence of
a master narrative which would enable us to chart the social impact of
religion over time, therefore, it makes better sense to divide the question
into parts – the parts most likely to further our understanding of the phenomenon of Industrial Enlightenment. Did Protestant Nonconformity
into the orbit of the League movement. Despite many clergymen’s gloomy
fixation upon the spectre of declining religious observance, this public was
sizeable and growing, with church membership peaking, according to one
estimate, at around 10m in 1930, representing approximately 29% of the adult
population.6 Yet lobbying the churches not only facilitated direct access to
thousands of congregations but also enabled the LNU to carve out a place for
the League in the official discourse of organised religion, whose force was felt
far beyond the community of regular
instil their cause into the religious life of local congregations. Under constant pressure to justify their work to supporters at home, missions were dependent on their ability to penetrate grass-roots society. 96 Susan Thorne shows how even in the most isolated rural villages the colonies could be encountered on a regular basis through the local institutions of organised religion. 97 Missionary sermons and publications mapped the Empire for their public, furnishing them with representations of people of different countries and shaping ideas of race, gender, and
Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic
‘One of the least things in religion’:
the Welsh experience of church polity,
Stephen K. Roberts
he condition of the protestant ministry in Wales was considered as
deplorable at the restoration of the monarchy as it had been on the
eve of the civil war nearly twenty years previously, and the condition of
Wales, both in social and religious terms, remained generally marginal to
the concerns of successive regimes at Westminster. Yet controversy over
the governance of the church in Wales was
of the constitution and the
composition of the royal court, underlain by fluctuating ideas of the
linkage between an individual’s private religion and their stance in
temporal affairs. Yet a scholarly narrative overwhelmingly devoted to the
fears and animosities injected into religious discourse offers an incomplete
picture of the relationship between the different congregations. For all the
force of the legal structures