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Nicola McDonald

anthropomorphic head, is instructive. The Turk’s Head no longer serves an active commemorative function (few will identify the allusion to the Crusades or the Siege of Vienna), but it is no less key to an understanding of the complex racial and religious bigotry that underlies dominant Western ideology. Stigmatised as an object of both fear and fascination, the Muslim, reduced to a symbolic turban or a grinning face,13 can be eaten. His supremacy in the medieval Holy Land, his incursion into the heart of Renaissance Europe, his threat to American hegemony is contained

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
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Stephen Penn

assessment of Wyclif’s campaign for church reform in the late fourteenth century did much to secure his reputation among Protestant intellectuals in Reformation and post-Reformation England and Europe. Bishop Bale, who himself became a religious exile after the institution of the Act of the Six Articles in 1539, and then again under the punitive regime of Mary Tudor, clearly felt that Wyclif had prophetically anticipated the course of church history in his own day. 2 For him, the Oxford scholar was like the ‘the morning star’ shining out in the darkness of his times, an

in John Wyclif
Ascension theology in liminal spaces
Johanna Kramer

which they teach the abstract doctrines of the totus Christus , Christ’s dual nature, and the exaltation of humanity. My approach to Bede’s hymn and TH 19 advances our thinking about these texts by showing how the concept of liminality, the construction of spatial relationships, and the skilful juxtaposition of three Christological events function together as a remarkable means of visualized theological instruction in early medieval religious literature. Moreover, the authors’ similar approach to narrating the Ascension suggests that specific Ascension thematics

in Between earth and heaven
Kathryn Walls

as ‘Bead-men’ (I.x.36.3) – implying as it does a quasi-monastic retirement from the world into a life of pure devotion – is provocative and, in terms of the actual functions of the beadsmen, paradoxical. But Red 40 The regenerate, according to John Bradford, ‘consisteth of two men … namely of the old man and of the new man. The old man is like a mighty giant … for his birth is now perfect; but the new man is like unto a little child … for his birth is not perfect until the day of his general resurrection.’ See John Bradford, Writings (London: Religious Tract

in God’s only daughter
Anthony Musson

and barons was announced by the bishop of Norwich ‘by the great cross in the nave’ of St Paul’s Cathedral in London. 20 The religious overtones and notions of trust made them important political events, especially as markers of behaviour. Repudiating a sacred oath required papal release and absolution. 21 The oath taken by the sovereign at his coronation was a statement

in Medieval law in context
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Powerful fragments: Ruin, relics, spolia
Denis Ferhatović

incorporate them, the way an artist would try to make a spolium fit into its surroundings. Beowulf always stands apart among the surviving Old English poetry, even though the scholarship often treats it as paradigmatic. It accumulates, even hoards, references to war plunder. Beowulf comes at the end because it follows the thematic and structural patterns described above, but, unlike the religious verse in Borrowed Objects , has a cloud of uncertainty hanging over it: the narrator cannot say what happens to his heroic pagan characters after death. The order of

in Borrowed objects and the art of poetry
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Helen Barr

3 Chaucer’s hands When the Pardoner boasts of his preaching prowess in the Prologue to his tale, he explicitly draws attention to his hands: Myne handes and my tonge goon so yerne That it is joye to se my bisynesse. (VI.398–9) But who can tell what ‘bisynesse’ these busy hands sign: ­rhetorical eloquence, inspirational moral teaching, or fraudulent extortion? Who sees these hands, and when? Although he talks in the present tense, at this moment, the Pardoner’s hands are suspended between his former congregations, the Canterbury pilgrims, and future audiences

in Transporting Chaucer
Margret Fetzer

skills and sciences and the creation of humankind from clay. The powerful likeness between the divine maker and the poetic creator of worlds is significantly verbal: Puttenham does not say, ‘A poet is as much as a maker’, but ‘A poet is as much to say as a maker’. It is ‘the creating power of religious language’ that aligns the poet creator with his divine counterpart, as ‘speaking the word bespeaks the world into existence’ (Frontain, 1995: 16–17, my emphasis; cf. Lewalski, 1979; Rupp, 2005: 120). The official religion of England, albeit reformed, still remained

in John Donne’s Performances
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Bede on the Flood
Daniel Anlezark

the text for the priest or religious, offering insights from his own experience of the monastic life reflected in and sustained by the spiritual meaning of the sacred text. Ultimately, though, his idea of his ‘own benefit’ suggests the desire for his own salvation, and Bede’s desire to teach is also directed to the salvation of souls, in particular those in the north of England at the beginning of the

in Water and fire
Enigmas, agency and assemblage
James Paz

identifies purpose and ownership from the outset, before the analysis of each side. He is keen to point out that the casket ‘was not meant to be a religious piece of art’ and that, as none of the carvings apart from the Magi scene would have suited religious purposes, it is ‘very likely’ that the casket ‘had been meant for some noble layman, for a king, an æðeling or a thane’. Becker acknowledges that such statements must remain ‘hypothetical’ but still wants us to ‘assume’ that the casket ‘once used to contain the hoard of some noble warrior, king or thane’ and that the

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture