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Bryan Fanning

murder machine’. There was the aforementioned reference to the Jesuit-run Clongowes and a passing one to the role of the Catholic Church in maintaining ‘a portion of the machinery’.21 An intense battle for the control of education for Catholics had been decisively won by the Church during the second half of the nineteenth century. The mass expansion of the primary school system had been levered by dedicated teaching orders such as the Christian Brothers. There were few private schools – what in England were called public schools – where pedagogical innovation might

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Marie Helena Loughlin

spiritual and political authority of the Roman Catholic Church, English Protestant reformists often seized on sodomy as a highly charged and emotive anti-papal discourse, with female homoerotic sexual acts sometimes appearing as well. Perhaps the most famous of these reformists, the playwright, bishop and controversialist John Bale, attacked Catholicism’s mandatory ecclesiastical celibacy as a trigger and veil for all kinds of sexual excesses; he claimed, as many reformists did, that Catholic celibacy for priests and other religious was unnatural, and encouraged men and

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735
Abstract only
Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives
D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman

since the famine. Daly considers the gendered nature of migration and the role women played in the construction of diasporic identities, through their work in the home, in the Catholic Church and in the underresearched arena of ethnic political organisations, suggesting many directions for future research. Focusing in particular on the migrant decision, Daly indicates important ways in which the Irish diaspora can be seen as gendered. Moreover, she argues that women’s role in the articulation of diasporic identities could be fruitfully explored if scholars paid

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Bryan Fanning

emigrant Irish living in the United States (the Fenians). During the 1880s, political agitation focused successfully on land reform (the Land League). The second half of the nineteenth century also saw a huge rise in the influence of the Catholic Church, which emerged as the main provider of education and social services. By the end of the nineteenth century the Catholic peasantry had become a mostly conservative land-owning class. The dominant Catholic political movement, the Irish Parliamentary Party, focused on achieving home rule through alliances with the Liberal

in Irish adventures in nation-building
Between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Letters
Aurélien Girard and Giovanni Pizzorusso

examines the Chambers_O’Connor_Printer.indd 174 08/09/2017 09:53 THE MARONITE COLLEGE IN EARLY MODERN ROME 175 college’s network of European connections in order to understand the activities of the Maronite diaspora especially, as Pierre Raphaël has already underlined, the role of its alumni in the international Republic of Letters. From missionaries in Mount Lebanon to young Maronites in Rome After the Council of Trent, and especially during the pontificate of Gregory XIII (1572–1585), the Roman Catholic Church, partly in response to the reformers, mounted a

in College communities abroad
Official responses to infanticide
Moira Maguire

tendency of judges to commit female offenders to magdalen asylums rather than prison, facilitated the church’s efforts to exert complete and unchallenged authority over a select group of problematic women in ways that otherwise would have been beyond its reach.24 It would not be unreasonable, then, to suggest that underpinning the Catholic Church’s “sanctify of life” rhetoric was less a concern for the fate of children, than a desire to control female sexuality. The reaction of Catholic writers to infanticide represented a mixture of theology and pragmatism that

in Precarious childhood in post-independence Ireland
Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia
David Bruce MacDonald

atrocities. The purpose behind this onslaught of subjective and emotive propaganda was clear – it buttressed Serbian arguments that the war was forced on the Serbian people. The Serbian Orthodox Church and its parishioners had been brought to the ‘verge of annihilation’.81 That this work appeared in 1994, after countless attacks on the Serbs in the international press for their destruction of Catholic churches and mosques, was no coincidence. Obviously Serbian churches were destroyed; but such one-sided portrayals were mirror images of Croatian publications. This even

in Balkan holocausts?
Abstract only
Entrepreneurs and professionals
John Herson

Parliament, 1868–1882: The case of the Married Women’s Property Acts’, The Historical Journal, 46:1 (March 2003), pp. 59–87. 69 SA, 7 December 1850, 1 February 1851, 29 April 1854, 16 January 1847. 70 Letter, 25 February 1886, quoted in S. Leslie, Henry Edward Manning: His Life and Labours (London: Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 1921), p. 415. 71 Herson, ‘The English, the Irish and the Catholic Church in Stafford’, p.  46, table. Only between 1851 and 1861 did the Irish and mixed-family Catholics achieve a bare majority: 51 per cent. By 1891 the Irish proportion had

in Divergent paths
Christine Kinealy

chief negotiator for Old Ireland, oscillated, intermittently threatening to resign if such a union took place.126 At one point, the Nation suggested that if John O’Connell had scruples about joining the League, he should retire from the Repeal Association.127 Many Old Irelanders, possibly out of residual loyalty to his father, felt that O’Connell should be allowed to make the final decision.128 The Catholic Church hierarchy was also divided on the question of the Irish League, with Archbishop Murray of Dublin stipulating that chapels were not to be used for public

in Repeal and revolution
Catherine Maignant

2 The Celtic Tiger and the new Irish religious market The Celtic Tiger and the religious market Catherine Maignant Many assume that the Celtic Tiger has devoured religion. However, a careful examination of data does not fully support this analysis. In the view of recent developments, it may even be argued that religiosity remained part of life for most Irish people throughout the Celtic Tiger years. John Waters once commented that in spite of Ireland’s disaffection with the Catholic Church ‘there [was] no such thing as an ex-­Catholic’ in Ireland (Waters 1997, p

in From prosperity to austerity