European integration as a system of conflict resolution in the Franco-German relationship (1950–63)
in Adenauer’s support for the Treaty. US
and UK support for German rearmament led Adenauer to believe that Germanpolitical and security needs in 1950 would be better served through an
agreement on Western European defence rather than the ECSC Treaty
(Schwabe 2004: 101). In contrast, France developed a linkage between the
ECSC and Germany’s participation in a Western European defence. It
was in this
counterpart, which is hampered by reactive (rather than the UK’s active)
Despite these critical comparative remarks about Germany, it is very important to keep in mind that these complex policy-making circumstances
obtain on non-EU policy as well, so politicians and officials are very
familiar with the routines. As in the UK and France, the requirements of
engagement with the EU policy process have been translated into the
German pattern of governance. A second observation is necessary: the main
Germanpolitical parties and other key
encouraging and supporting this artistic freedom, meaning that the bulk
of the cultural infrastructure is under the public-law sponsorship of the
cities and the Länder.
‘Partly as a prophylactic response of the Allied occupying forces and
the post-war Germanpolitical class to the centralised “total” cultural
policy of the Nazis, and partly as a return to the historically constituted
distinct political identity of the regional states’, Germany’s federalism is
2997 The European Union and culture
Conflicting models of policy intervention
early English guilds.20 He was particularly indebted to an essay, ‘On
the history and development of gilds, and the origin of trade unions’, contributed to the volume by the Germanpolitical economist Lujo Brentano,
based on extensive research undertaken by the latter in Britain in 1868–69.
Brentano was a widely acknowledged writer on trade unionism, in both
Britain and Germany, and is an author in whom there has been a revival
20 [Joshua] Toulmin Smith (ed.), English Gilds. The Original Ordinances of more than One
hundred Early English Gilds … from Original MSS
accountability to the
elected representatives of the people. The French
believe the state reflects the ‘general will’ of the people.
The state is closely linked to the identity of the people and reflects
their interests. It is part of the people and contributes to national
identity. It must not oppress the rights of the people. Germanpolitical tradition maintains that the state reflects the people
as the nation
. The Club’s inaugural meeting had taken place on
27 September 1942, with Lehmann-Russbueldt in the Chair.35 It was
clearly of interest to British intelligence since, apart from the watchful
‘Ri’, ‘a number of British officers were present’, so a Ministry of Information report recorded.36
Otto Lehmann-Russbueldt was unusually well connected, both among
the Germanpolitical émigrés and in British pacifist circles, and his information gathering was undoubtedly facilitated by his reputation within the
German exile community. The British Security Service, too, had a
conduct during the Holocaust has led to far greater absorption of Jews than ever
before. As a result, Jews feel ‘great’ in most of the continent, particularly in
Berlin. The Israeli political scientist Shlomo Avineri explains:
Israelis in particular, Jews in general, enjoy privileges and immunity in Germany;
this behaviour stems from the German guilty conscience pertaining to the Holocaust.
Whatever thoughts the Germans have concerning Israelis, seldom will they express
them out loud. In line with Germanpolitical correctness, it is forbidden (verboten)
voting behaviour: Evidence from Germany’, Political Psychology. 28: 471–98.
Seltzer, R., J. Newman and M. V. Leighton. 1997. Sex as a Political Variable:
Women as Candidates and Voters in US Elections. New York: Lynne Rienner
Smith, J. L., D. Paul and R. Paul. 2007. ‘No place for a woman: Evidence for
gender bias in evaluations of presidential candidates’, Basic and Applied
Social Psychology. 29: 225–33.
Squire, P. 1992. ‘Legislative professionalization and membership diversity in
state legislatures’, Legislative Studies Quarterly. 17: 69–79.
Van Dunk, E
Blais, A., and A. M. L. Perrella. 2008. ‘Systematic effects of televised candidates’
debates’, International Journal of Press/Politics. 13: 451–64.
Brettschneider, F., K. Neller and C. Anderson. 2006. ‘Candidate images in the
2005 German national election’, GermanPolitics. 15: 481–99.
Clarke, H. D., P. Kellner, M. Stewart and P. Whiteley. 2016. Austerity and Political
Choice in Britain. London: Palgrave.
Clarke, H. D., D. Sanders, M. Stewart and P. Whiteley. 2004. Political Choice in
Britain. New York: Oxford University Press.
Collins, S. 2013. ‘Joan