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parties. Some territorial governments, also small islands, have no parties. These include American Samoa, Guernsey and the Falkland Islands. In addition, parties have only recently made a breakthrough in the Isle of Man and in Jersey, where the legislatures have always been dominated by independents. Two other prominent examples of nonpartisan regimes are the Canadian territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, both of which are ‘consensus’ democracies. Apart from a short period of party rule at the turn of the twentieth century (G. White 1991, 2006

in Independents in Irish party democracy

4 West Sussex and the rural south Turmoil in Sussex The Isle of Man was close to the sea-lanes of the British World, but received relatively little direct effect from its industrial and commercial powerhouses. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. Though only fifty miles south of London, nevertheless much of West Sussex, slipped further into rural isolation and poverty in the early nineteenth century. It gained scant benefit from the explosion of economic development to the north. Instead it became an area

in The genesis of international mass migration

tension runs through George Formby’s films, where those with power struggle to keep the irrepressible George in his place. His fruitless attempts to obtain a drink on the Isle of Man steamer in No Limit (d. Monty Banks, 1935) illustrate that though a barman may have low status, he can connive in maintaining the social order – with George at the bottom. The equivocal position of the supervisor has particular

in The British working class in postwar film
The context

Agreement has an East–West component and creates structures which link the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK. The result is the creation of the British–Irish Council (BIC) (Strand 3, Paragraph 1), which promotes ‘the harmonious and mutually beneficial development of the totality of relationships among the peoples of these islands’. The Council brings together representatives of the British and Irish governments, and of devolved institutions in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, in addition to representatives of the Isle of Man, Channel

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Applying a theory of multi-level governance

institutional innovation created  under the terms of the 1998 Agreement. The institution brings together ministers from the UK and Irish governments, the three devolved ­administrations  – Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland – and the autonomous territories of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey. The institution does not have executive or legislative powers, but considers areas of mutual interest and aims to produce consensus among participants on agreed policy concerns. The institution itself was created to appease Northern Ireland unionists who

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
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‘Winters of discontent’

social contract had largely been abandoned, leaving only stringent wage control as the main political issue. There was therefore a sign of storms ahead when the highly respected and popular Jones was shouted down at the 1977 TGWU biennial conference on the Isle of Man as he endeavoured to secure a further year’s support for the government’s pay policy rather than a return to free collective bargaining. There were two portents of what was to come in the ‘winter of discontent’. First, from 1976 to 1978, the Grunwick strike about union recognition took place in north

in Crisis? What crisis?
Refugees and schools in the Manchester region

. Victor Maxwell remembers that Wolfgang arrived with ‘large travelling trunk … a full-size table-tennis table [and] his German bicycle’ (Victor Maxwell, ’My Father’s Family’, p. 33). Wolfgang’s parents lived with the Maxwells, his father acting as Max’s assistant, until they found a house of their own in Bury, where Wolfgang joined them. After his internment on the Isle of Man, Dr Plessner had a nervous breakdown and was confined for a time in a mental hospital in Dumfries. His wife meantime took a living-in job as a cook at a student hostel where Wolfgang also had a

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Manchester Rotarians and refugees

YMCA at the expense of the Rotarians, entertained by Manchester industrialists and taken on a trip down the Manchester Ship Canal, before moving on for a few days in Blackpool. They ‘had to hurry back,’ the report reads, ‘before the storm broke’.17 It is not clear when or why the Manchester Club made its decision to move from such optimistic and conciliatory gestures to the active support of refugees. Refugees received their first cursory mention in Rotarian circles in a report on the annual conference of District Five Rotary in Douglas, Isle of Man, during summer

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Refugees at the Stockport hostel, 1939–1940

married out of the Jewish faith, two to women they met at social events at Austria House towards the end of the war.73 Prager herself, perhaps the major influence on the boys’ identity at this stage, was herself not religiously observant.74 The house at 30 Whitefield served as a refugee hostel for only fourteen months. In July 1940, all its inmates but Helmut Beck, who, although born and brought up in Germany, retained the Czech nationality of his father, were interned on the Isle of Man. Helmut himself was found accommodation with the Tapp family of Heaton Moor

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Contemporary witchcraft and the Lancashire witches

repeated by various German historians. The feminist writer Matilda Jocelyn Gage then made use of the number in Women, Church and State in 1893 in order to emphasise the crimes of the Church against women. It is from Gage that the number entered Wiccan mythology: the Museum of Witchcraft and Magic on the Isle of Man, owned by Cecil Williamson with Gerald Gardner as ‘resident Witch’, sported a plaque commemorating the nine million witches who died in the Great Witch Hunt, and Mary Daly’s use of the figure in Gyn-Ecology (1978) introduced the myth to feminist Witches

in The Lancashire witches