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Calendar time in balade form
Catherine Sanok

:34 Reforming calendar Afterword: sanctity time in balade form 229 ‘literature’, which generally take as axiomatic its difference from instrumental texts. The use of verse in a premodern text such as this one does not complicate this classification, since verse often had a clear functional role in aiding memory in this period. Indeed, Bokenham’s stanza is a mnemonic on the order of a much better known Middle English kalende, ‘Thirty days hath November’, though it is clumsier, and surely less effective than this lyric, which is, of course, still in use in only slightly

in Sanctity as literature in late medieval Britain
E.A. Jones

. In confirmation of the which purpose and vow with my own hand I have put to [added] the sign of the cross. 53. The Rule of St Linus Linus succeeded St Peter to be the second pope. We can be certain, however, that he had nothing to do with the Middle English ‘rule’ for hermits that bears his name. (Compare the attribution of the Rule of Celestine [ 46 ].) In fact, this short text is

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
Imogen Julia Marcus

learning of skills that can immediately be used for a purpose identified as important by the learner’.15 The majority of women in early modern England, including Bess, achieved the level of literacy that they needed in order for their daily lives to function effectively. Previous studies Previous studies on the middle English and early modern English periods and suggest that although the evidence is relatively fragmentary, differences in the way that women and men use language can be traced back to pre-Standard 82 Bess of Hardwick: new perspectives English

in Bess of Hardwick
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Elisabeth Salter

relating to the particularities of those findings. The focus of my study of reading is on vernacular reading matter, in English in this instance, even though many of the texts had Latin precursors or versions in circulation at the same time, and although there was also macaronic and bilingual writing readily available. A Middle English Miscellany forms the focus of Chapter 5 and it is the English texts which are explored although there are also some macaronic items in here. The English translation of the treatise on husbandry, attributed to Robert Grosseteste, alongside

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600
Ascension theology in liminal spaces
Johanna Kramer

information about Old English homiletic materials where Anglo-Saxon records are incomplete or missing altogether, as is the case with the treatment of the Ascension discussed in this chapter. Twelfth-century England clearly saw an abiding interest in the vernacular preaching tradition. Old English homilies continued to be copied and recopied (for example, Ælfric’s sermon cycles); Old English homilies were updated into Middle English (as is the case, for instance, with several items in the Lambeth Homilies); 35 and new vernacular homilies were

in Between earth and heaven
The implications of mobility
Daniel Birkholz

Harley Lyrics, according to Brook, is ‘largely due to the fitness of Middle English to be a lyrical language’; it has a sound landscape ‘more sonorous than modern English’. 10 This is why I began this chapter with a poetic invocation rather than a theoretical or literary-historical proposition. The historicist portion of this chapter will argue that the textual phenomenon of the Harley Lyrics—their unique currency ‘ by west ’ [ # 30.37]—may be regarded as a consequence of the geographical mobility that marks the careers of certain West Midlands secular clerks c. 1275

in Harley manuscript geographies
Thomas A. Prendergast

-Century Continuations and Additions, TEAMS Middle English Text Series (Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, 1992), p. 57. 10 See the list from Daniel W. Mosser and Linne R. Mooney, who also identify fragments and other manuscripts associated with the Berynscribe in ‘More manuscripts by the Beryn scribe and his cohort’, Chaucer Review, 49 (2014), 39–76. 11 Alnwick Castle, Northumberland MS 455 [Nl], fol. 116r. 12 Northumberland MS 455, fol. 240r. 13 The geographical reference to Harbledown (two miles outside Canterbury) in the Manciple’s Prologue, which seems to confirm the one

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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R. S. White

means ‘a place or medium in which something is originated ... a point of origin and growth’ and is derived from Latin mater for ‘breeding female’ and the late Middle English word for ‘womb’. As a unit of thought a cliché is the fons et origo for all that is shaped into existence thereafter by using it. We live by clichés, and often we die by them, in the sense that they can reconcile us to the

in Shakespeare’s cinema of love
London, British Library MS Harley 2253 and the traffic of texts
Rory Critten

French text of this poem illuminates the possible uses of French to address an insular audience. In the Middle English ‘Flemish Insurection’, by contrast, the use of French words and French-​ derived lexis may be seen to evoke a continental French identity that is at odds with English attitudes and interests. After a run down of the international connections promoted by the Harley scribe’s compilation choices and the vibrant Hereford milieu to which he belonged, I then return to f. 76r of Harley 2253 in order to elaborate a fresh reading of the page’s final poem, ‘Dum

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
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The narrator in the Scottish Legendary
Eva von Contzen

’s Narrators, p. 2. 11 Lawton, Chaucer’s Narrators, p. 4. 12 See the Appendix for more detail of the editorial history of the compilation. 82 The Scottish Legendary 13 See Joceyln Wogan-Browne et al. (eds), The Idea of the Vernacular: An Anthology of Middle English Literary Theory 1280–1520 (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999), pp. 3–105. 14 On the basis of these references, we can classify the Prologue as a redactor’s prologue because the poet is largely concerned with his role as translator and editor of the legends; see Andrew Galloway, ‘Middle English Prologues

in The Scottish Legendary