Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation

). None of this complexity is new. The sector has historically responded to emergencies where local conflict collides with weak social systems, high-threat pathogen outbreaks, natural hazard disasters and a shortfall in financial or moral will from the international community to act ( Development Initiatives, 2018 ; Salama et al. , 2004 ). What has changed, however, is the nature of this complexity. It has been inextricably shifted by forces that are beyond the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

victims. For a couple of decades it was successful in publicly challenging Western foreign policy in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia ( Duffield, 2007 : 51–4). Having once exercised a moral leadership, however, after a long struggle against donor absorption and UN control, an international direct humanitarian engagement finally yielded amid the horrors of Iraq and Syria. The War on Terror imposed limitations. Compared to the 1970s and 1980s, humanitarian agencies found their political room for manoeuvre significantly restricted ( BOND, 2003 ). At

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

5  The death of Cordelia and the economics of preference in eighteenth-century moral psychology William Flesch Biology recapitulates economics: at least evolutionary biology seems to be rediscovering and analysing the same kinds of ideas that the great eighteenth-century economic psychologists (from Mandeville to Hume to Smith) had explored. Over the last few years there has been a heated debate among evolutionary theorists – scientists, mathematicians, the odd humanist – about whether altruism is possible, given the core idea that evolution is driven by the

in Writing and constructing the self in Great Britain in the long eighteenth century

This book surveys ‘thrift’ through its moral, religious, ethical, political, spiritual and philosophical expressions, focusing in on key moments such as the early Puritans and postwar rationing, and key characters such as Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Smiles and Henry Thoreau. The relationships between thrift and frugality, mindfulness, sustainability and alternative consumption practices are explained, and connections made between myriad conceptions of thrift and contemporary concerns for how consumer cultures impact scarce resources, wealth distribution and the Anthropocene. Ultimately, the book returns the reader to an understanding of thrift as it was originally used – to ‘thrive’ – and attempts to re-cast thrift in more collective, economically egalitarian terms, reclaiming it as a genuinely resistant practice. Students, scholars and general readers across all disciplines and interest areas will find much of interest in this book, which provides a multi-disciplinary look at a highly topical concept.

fragmentary (hence its extended treatment here). The lengthiest reference to it occurs in the chapter on legitimate authority. This has led some to infer that I mean to define terrorism in terms of the unauthorized use of political violence rather than (as in commoner usage) in terms of the targeting of non-­combatants (cf. Coady 2007, pp. 172–3). This is not my intention. In fact, it is not my intention to define terrorism at all, since it seems that definitions can be as much of a hindrance as a help to the moral understanding of a phenomenon like terrorism. Definitions

in The ethics of war
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Second edition

Though the just war tradition has an ancient pedigree, like any tradition of thought, it is subject to historical highs and lows. Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the Crusades to the present day, this book explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. It focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledged and the dangers which an exaggerated view of the justice or moral worth of war poses are underlined. The adoption of a 'dispositional' view of ethical life, in which moral character and moral culture play a decisive part, widens and transforms the ethics of war. Realism resists the application of morality to war. Pacifism harms and benefits the just war tradition in about equal measure. In opposition to the amoral and wholly pragmatic approach of the 'pure' realist, the just war theorist insists on the moral determination of war where that is possible, and on the moral renunciation of war where it is not. Moral realism is what the just war tradition purports to be about. Legitimate authority has become entirely subordinated to the concept of state sovereignty. If moderate forms of consequentialism threaten the principle of noncombatant immunity, more extreme or purer forms clearly undermine it. The strategic and the ethical problems of counterterrorism are compounded by the emergence of a new and more extreme form of terrorism.

The morality of capacity-increasing technologies in the military

Throughout history, states have tried to create the perfect combatant, with superhuman physical and cognitive features akin to those of comic book superheroes. However, the current innovations have nothing to do with the ones from the past, and their development goes beyond a simple technological perspective. On the contrary, they are raising the prospect of a human-enhancement revolution that will change the ways in which future wars will be fought and may even profoundly alter the foundations upon which our modern societies are built. This book discusses the full ethical implications of these new technologies, making it a unique resource for students and scholars interested in the morality of warfare.

Refusing to adopt a binary vision, political theorist Jean-François Caron argues that, when analysed from an ethical viewpoint, the development and use of capacity-increasing technologies in the military is far more complex than it first appears, since it presents us with a significant moral dilemma. On the one hand, enhancing soldiers’ capacities can be interpreted as a moral obligation on the part of the military. On the other, such technologies might also end up harming fundamental moral principles of warfare. Without condemning them as evil and inadmissible, Professor Caron proposes a nuanced and balanced appraisal of capacity-increasing technologies in the military as a tool that ought to be used contingently on the respect of certain moral criteria.

Introduction to the first edition Introduction to the first edition This is a book about the ethics of war, about war in its moral or normative aspect.1 The central question that it addresses is how (if  at all) moral reasoning might be brought to bear upon the activity of war. The very notion that morality may be applicable to such a destructive enterprise as war will strike some as bizarre, even perhaps as scandalous. The contrary assumption that war lies beyond any moral pale is not only a common one, but one that, particularly in the light of twentieth

in The ethics of war

10 Noncombatant immunity The moral reasoning associated with the principle of civilian or, more exactly, noncombatant immunity is one of the most strongly contested areas of just war theory. Not the least contentious issue has to do with the nature and moral status of the distinction on which the principle rests. Traditionally, the distinction is seen to arise out of the moral prohibition on the taking of innocent life. But what constitutes ‘innocence’ in this context? Is ‘innocence’ to be understood, in the dominant conventional sense, as a term descriptive of

in The ethics of war
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4 The just war The image of war that just war analysis presupposes is the object of inquiry in this chapter: not the specific just war principles and analytical concepts to be examined later, but the general conception of war that underpins that complex moral apparatus. How does this image of war compare with the contending approaches outlined previously, with realism, militarism and pacifism? Where does just war thinking fit in this conceptual spectrum of war? Of the four different images of war considered here the just war image is the only one to uphold the

in The ethics of war