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the Federal Reserve than he actually felt in order to give him good standing when some of the options provided a partial way out. That is, of course exactly what happened. Just two days after Lehman filed for Chapter 11, Barclays announced that it would acquire Lehman Brothers North American investment banking and capital markets operations and supporting infrastructure. That included Lehman Brothers' New York headquarters and two data centres, all for $1.75bn, a price which the New York Times described as a ‘fire sale’ and which was much less than Lehman expected

in Lehman Brothers
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1 Sources and origins Thank god for the so-called Iron Curtain … this perfect isolation meant that we did not degenerate as swiftly or as tragically as the rest of Europe. There, art became titillation, a delicacy, a topic of conversation. Our activities are not experimental art, but necessary activity. – Milan Knížák, 1966 Pre-history In Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, Roselee Goldberg outlines the development of performance in Western Europe and North America, pointing to its origins in Futurism and Dada in the early years of the twentieth

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960

enterprises centred on the advanced economies of Western Europe and North America. Domestically, they absorbed the material values and aspirations of western capitalism and accepted, pretty much, the ethics of free economic enterprise, in which capital purchased goods and services as cheaply as possible and endeavoured to sell them as dearly as possible, and in which a supposedly free market in labour determined its price, otherwise known as wages. Consumption patterns were also similar, the goods and services purchased resembling those in other westernised economies

in Community and identity
Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese modernity

.01’ in 1890, 13 reportedly amassed a fortune of over £1.6 million after just sixteen years of marketing the pills. 14 Though it had become an object of contempt and a symbol of quackery in England and North America by the early twentieth century, the company existed until 1989. 15 According to an 1899 Illustrated London News advertisement, Dr Williams’ Pink Pills could cure a vast

in Progress and pathology
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Reformatory and industrial schools and twentieth-century Ireland

events Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary, who operated the first mother and baby home in Ireland, established in Cork in 1924, came from England with their extensive experience of running such homes in that country. All of the institutions cited in this popular narrative of the alliance between Catholic Church and Irish state operated across Europe and North America; thus they were not unique to Ireland, as is sometimes intimated. While C ­ atholic congregations managed reformatory and industrial schools and, as noted above, confined up to 8,000 children at the peak of

in Defining events

Protestants as symbols of libertarianism, they feared ‘the entire overthrow of the present Constitution, and . . . the subversion of the liberties of Great Britain’.20 Other measures which granted such commissions did so under jealous regulation; the Acts of 1798 and 1799, even when manpower was desperately needed, were carefully restricted to service in America.21 Moravians – for all their ancient episcopal orders – were also specifically defined by parliament as a foreign church. The Act of 1749 which legitimised their missions in the British North American colonies was a

in Parliaments, nations and identities in Britain and Ireland, 1660–1850
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This collection analyses the significant changes in the aesthetics, production and reception of Spanish cinema and genre from 1990 to the present. It brings together European and North American scholars to establish a critical dialogue on the topic of contemporary Spanish cinema and genre while providing multiple perspectives on the concepts of national cinemas and genre theory. We start from the

in Contemporary Spanish cinema and genre
From Le Thé au harem d’Archimède to Cheb

The theoretical debates informing British and North American analyses of the representation of ‘new ethnicities’ in popular culture have been largely absent from French discourses on race, immigration and national identity. 2 The French academy has remained impervious, if not hostile, to the development of critical theories on the construction of the subject which have fed the political agenda informing both cultural studies and women

in Reframing difference
Representing Africans and Afro-Creoles in the Anglo-American world

’s timeless, picturesque Caribbean Arcadias and Belisario’s modern, urban Kingston. His pictures of black West Indians are firmly rooted in their historical present, depicting a world far from both paradise and London, a world very much engaged in the messy transition from tropical wilderness to colonial outpost. After situating these images within the context of British colonial painting in the Caribbean, I discuss Brunias’s Handkerchief Dance on the Island of Dominica relative to two examples from North America, an unknown artist’s eighteenth-century watercolour known as

in Colouring the Caribbean

, women’s congregations expanded from their origins on the continent and in England and Ireland, to North America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Asia and Africa. Visits like that of Mother Philomena Higgins which recounted the ‘hardships & work’ and the transformation of this ‘spirit of . . . joyful sacrifice’ conjured an image of the women religious that populated these far-flung convents. Women religious imagined the ‘deep, horizontal comradeship’ with each member of the congregation; this reinforced their corporate identity.75 They considered themselves part

in Contested identities