Spectacle and Spanish identity during Franco’s dictatorship
Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
, en resumen, el “multipelismo”. Lo
han puesto de moda los Beatles, lo ha elevado entre nosotros El Cordobés, lo
han propagado las chicas inglesas de una generación que habrían de calificar
de “novísimas”’ (‘Multipelistas en la Costa. Cunde el desgreñado ejemplo del
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34 Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
J. Babiano and S. Farre (2002), ‘La emigración Española a Europa durante los
años sesenta: Francia y Suiza como países de acogida’ (‘Spanish emigration to
Europe during thesixties: France and
increasingly serve to confirm history and structure the memorialising of
knowledge. Through mediated memory historical events become memorialised
through their media representation – remembered by their mediation
and remediation – and this iterative process helps to construct a
sense of the past as episodic. The recognisable narrative of the past as
a succession of definable decades (such as ‘thesixties’ and
marks and thesixty hostages. 6 In an additional clause Henry then stipulated that,
if Richard was successful in his ‘promise’ regarding
Henry the Lion, the exiled duke of Saxony, the Emperor would
discharge 50,000 marks of Richard’s ransom, pay the 20,000
marks due to Leopold of Austria, and, furthermore, waive the right
to thesixty-seven hostages. If Richard was unable to fulfil his
traditional historiography of the ‘sixties’, epitomised by the work
of Arthur Marwick and Christie Davies, would later reinforce this story
of shifting power dynamics. Indeed, Marwick was to identify the Catholic
Church as the archetypal antagonist in his account of sixties
liberation, describing it as being ‘in opposition to all the great
movements aiming towards greater freedom for ordinary human beings in
58 J. Reston, ‘Mr. Whiskers’, New York Times , 8 September 1971.
59 J. Reston, ‘Europe in the Spring’, New York Times , 2 April 1972.
60 N. N., ‘How America Looks at Europe’, Time Magazine , 12 March 1973.
61 N. N., ‘Here Comes the “European Idea”’, Time Magazine , 12 March 1973.
62 For an interpretation of the 1970s as a decade of multiple crises P. Jenkins, Decade of Nightmares: The End of theSixties and the Making of Eighties
’s stories and teachings. On the one hand, she is inured to hearing Chinese sayings such as ‘Feeding girls is feeding cow-birds’, whilst on the other hand, she listens to her mother ‘talking-story’ about Fa Mu Lan ( WW , p. 48). On the one hand, she busies herself turning ‘American-feminine, or no dates’, whilst on the other, she ‘went away to college – Berkeley in thesixties – and I studied, and I marched to save the world’ ( WW , p. 49). On the one hand, she tells us that there ‘is a Chinese word for the female I – which is “slave”. Break the women with their own
significant fruit. 65
1 Steve Neale, ‘Art Cinema as Institution’, Screen , 22: 1 (1981), pp. 11–40.
2 See Alexander Walker, Hollywood, England: The British Film Industry in theSixties (London: Joseph, 1974).
3 The Eady levy was a tax on admissions that was redistributed, via the British Film Fund, to producers in proportion to their box office takings, thus rewarding commercial success. The NFFC was a specialist film bank advancing loans to
(DIY) self-production ethic of 1970s punk, whereby participants followed
in the DIY tradition of jazz, skiffle and thesixties counter-culture to produce
their own music, visual style and media (in the form of fanzines).7 Another
important aspect of the DIY ethic in punk was that bands were (and remain)
audience members, underlining punk’s participatory nature and conveying
a sense of egalitarianism. This DIY ethic was developed during the 1980s by
British anarcho and American hardcore punk, both of which placed greater
emphasis on DIY activities
‘Symbols of defiance’ from the print to the digital age
Matt Grimes and Tim Wall
its fanzines are less a rebirth of
alternative values and more one of a number of stopping-off places in a longer
history of ‘cultures of resistance since thesixties’.19 Many of his interests in
music as cultural politics, in community music and DIY culture, expressed in
other publications, are distilled in this cultural history.20 In McKay’s history,
unlike more traditional popular music histories, punk does not become completely incorporated into the mainstream of the popular music industry, but the
importance of the punk critique is sustained through the more
–1963 , London : Penguin Books .
Houston , Penelope and Crow , Duncan ( 1959–60 ), ‘ Into theSixties ’, Sight & Sound , Winter, 4 – 8 .
Inglis , Fred ( 2003 ), ‘ National Snapshots: Fixing the Past in English War Films ’, in MacKillop , Ian and Sinyard , Neil (eds.) British Cinema in the 1950s: A Celebration , Manchester : Manchester University Press .
Johnston , Keith M. ( 2012 ), ‘ A Riot of All the Colours in the Rainbow: Ealing Studios in Colour ’, in Duguid , Mark , Freeman , Lee , Johnston , Keith M. and