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Egalitarianism and elitism
John Carter Wood

opportunity’. 7 Planning would allow capitalism’s inequalities to be counteracted by democratically controlled investment controls and ‘re-distribution schemes’: the ‘existing stratification’ could be modified by taxation, ‘maintaining an element of competition, only with less inequality’. 8 Complaints about inequality, poverty and unemployment as well as calls for redistributive policies were often made in the group. 9 In the Moot, Oldham claimed that ‘the redistribution of wealth’ would be a ‘crucial issue’ in a Christian society, warning

in This is your hour
Cara Delay

competition for other girls who never left home. They were smart looking, well dressed and their manners and speech were a ­distinct asset. However, when asked if they were going to marry a farmer some retorted, ‘I guess I’m too wise for that’.16 Single female emigrants, as Meaney, O’Dowd, and Whelan point out, sought ‘independence’ as well as ‘better living and working conditions’; in the process, they caused angst among Catholic Church authorities, who realised that these women were rejecting the idealised version of Irish womanhood for something different and distinctly

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Abstract only
Carmen Mangion

without an explicit link to feminism. 53 Religion was relevant to and influenced by the post-war world. Hugh McLeod points to a national Christian identity that both the Second World War and the Cold War encouraged in Western nations. He highlights continued church-building, Christian socialisation in schools and confessional identities into the 1960s. 54 Church attendance, though, was declining; this religious world appeared in competition with an affluent 1950s and 1960s culture and its materialistic world of leisure and consumerism. 55 The narratives of the 1950s

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Carmen Mangion

… focussed on my gift of self … What it cost my parents I didn’t apprehend … how inhuman that old system was, and how amazing that my parents accepted it so willingly. 117 Catholic socialisation and the social norms of religious life that emphasised the ‘gift of self’ and the separateness of the life of enclosure had taken on sacral dimensions. But post-war modernity gave rise to a new concept in direct competition with such ideas. As Pat Thane has argued, new constructions of the family placed it more firmly as the means and the symbol of both personal stability and

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Sarah Glynn

compulsory for us. We also contacted some countries to train us in guerrilla fighting.94 One country that offered guerrilla training was Cuba, although it is unclear how much actually took place.95 Divisions in the left Through the 1960s, the left everywhere became increasingly fractured, reflecting events in Peking and Moscow. The idea of ‘socialism in one country’ had legitimated a new nationalism and competition between the bureaucracies of the two Stalinist countries, leading to the Sino-Soviet split in 1964. This found echoes among the Pakistani communists as it did

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
Abstract only
Manchester Jewry and refugees, 1933–1937
Bill Williams

from domestic 11 ‘Jews and other foreigners’ disputes to conflicts between Jewish employers and their workers, or Jewish landlords and their tenants, in a private court in Laski’s home on Smedley Lane, Cheetham Hill.9 Competition between communal institutions was resolved before it undermined the image of ‘cohesion’ on which the effectiveness of the Council’s mediating role depended.10 This role it saw as one to which it was exclusively entitled: a running battle was fought with communal mavericks, lay or clerical, who rushed into print or into action on issues of

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Abstract only
The city and its people in the mid-sixteenth century
Elizabeth C. Tingle

Saturday markets and on fair days, and there was to be no hawking of bread at all. The bakers were confirmed in their preferential access to the grain market, having the right to buy at any time, and on market days to purchase before other bakers and merchants.100 All of this reduced competition and facilitated supervision; elected guild officers had to visit all bakers twice a week. Similarly, the butchers of Nantes were incorporated into a guild in the early 1570s. Other craft corporations remained few in the city. Police authority was thus devolved downwards, to guild

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
Reformation, revision, texts and nations 1500–1700
Christopher Tyerman

length the similarities between the religions of Luther and Muhammed. However, Moschus was not just a polemical pamphleteer or sermoniser. In preparing his edition of Jacques de Vitry, he had searched for manuscripts, confessional pugilists on all sides seeking to lend such academic weight to their blows on their opponents.9 Increasingly, from the 1550s, as much interest was shown in the use of crusades or religious war against rival Christians as in struggles against Islam. In the competition to assert ownership of the medieval past to support Catholic or Protestant

in The Debate on the Crusades
Keeping the crusades up to date
Christopher Tyerman

unsurprising as the 1806 competition was run against a backdrop of official academic concern to promote the history of the crusades.8 Although the Maurists had been swept away by the 100 EMPATHY AND MATERIALISM Revolution, their scheme for a collection of crusade texts was refloated at one of the earliest meetings of the post-Revolution Institut de France in 1796. Two years later, its proposer, the national archivist Armand Gaston Camus, returned to the idea, arguing that interest in the crusading period lay especially in the mutual influence between east and west, a hot

in The Debate on the Crusades
Some medieval views of the crusades
Christopher Tyerman

and fifteenth centuries, with a very few exceptions such as the defence of Belgrade (1456), attracted very little crosstaking or mass recruitment. Crusading ceased to be something the faithful did, merely something they supported, like modern charity donations. Wars of the cross were tailored to confused frontlines, such as the competition for political space between Greeks, Latins, Slavs, Hungarians and Ottomans in the Balkans. 26 MEDIEVAL VIEWS The clear imperatives of twelfth – or thirteenth-century Palestine or Egypt were hard to recreate. In any case, while

in The Debate on the Crusades