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The embassy of Sultan Alauddin of Aceh to the Netherlands, 1601– 1603
Jean Gelman Taylor

Ottoman sultan, symbolic head of the Islamic world. Low-lying territory and a network of major European rivers crossing it to the sea engendered a Dutch economy geared to water-borne commerce and manufacturing. The seaboard provinces hosted commercial companies that financed trade and navigation science, and outfitted fleets for long-distance voyages. In 1598 four Dutch ships sailed into Aceh’s busy harbour. By 1600 Maurits had written to the

in Royals on tour
Antigoni Memou

the peculiarities of the street life as it unfolds in a demonstration differentiate his practice from earlier practitioners. However, Sternfeld deliberately chose not to look for random images of the demonstrations as they were unfolding on the streets, but instead he carefully chose his subjects posing against urban backgrounds. His decision distances him from the almost random shooting of preceding representatives of the genre, as well as from their inability to define their subjects and their ‘apparent aimlessness and an attraction to drift’.15 Anti

in Photography and social movements
Goodbye to the working class
Philip Gillett

) charts the rise of Hamer Radshaw (Michael Redgrave) from child of the Manchester slums to Labour cabinet minister. In achieving his ambition, he is distanced from the people whose cause he championed. The film stands apart from those so far discussed in being a political biography, consciously contrasting working-class poverty in the late nineteenth century with subsequent affluence. Raymond Durgnat interprets the film as an

in The British working class in postwar film
Frances McGinnity and Merike Darmody

relations are important for all the individuals in a society, the protective functions provided by social interaction are of particular importance for newly arrived immigrant families and their children. Immigrant families may need to renegotiate their position in the receiving countries several times and many are likely to experience a sense of dislocation. Irish studies have indicated that while all children may find social relations with peers and teachers strained at times, in some cases cultural distance contributes towards the ‘outsider’ status of immigrant

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Barbados, 1937–66

This book examines the processes of nation building in the British West Indies. It argues that nation building was a complex and messy affair, involving women and men in a range of social and cultural activities, in a variety of migratory settings, within a unique geo-political context. Taking as a case study Barbados, which, in the 1930s, was the most economically impoverished, racially divided, socially disadvantaged and politically conservative of the British West Indian colonies, the book tells the messy, multiple stories of how a colony progressed to a nation. It tells all sides of the independence story.

Explicit sex in recent French fiction and film

This book examines that body of recent French literary and cinematic productions which have been characterised by their reference to, use of, or complicity with the aesthetics, the codes, the tropes or the world of pornography, and which have made a significant cultural impact on the basis of this dimension. It considers the insistent heterosexuality of most contemporary pornographic citation, exploring a range of texts and films, and taking in the female perspective on the male and the male perspective on the female. The book discusses the work of Guillaume Dustan and Erik Remes, whose explicit representations of sexual activity intervene into debates about the place of gay and queer identities in contemporary France, particularly with reference to sexual practice in the light of the AIDS epidemic. The book explores the conflicted sexual space, considering the perspectives of men and women in turn, starting somewhat unconventionally with women's art. It addresses Catherine Breillat's work in terms of its relation to the pornographic. The book also explains that the homophobic dismissal of homosexuality, and its defiant, resistant assertion, sometimes rely on the figure of anality as a kind of shorthand for their arguments about the relationship between desire, productivity, anatomy, futurity, community, and so on. Michel Houellebecq's treatment of questions of gender, most especially the portrayal of women, including the discourses of misogyny and anti-feminism, is discussed. The book also looks at the concept of child pornography, romantic comedy, and the growing impact of independent cinema.

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Sarah Cooper

. Marker and Jacopo Berenizi are just three of the pseudonyms that distance him from his original name of Christian François Bouche-Villeneuve, who was born in 1921 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. To accompany this slipperiness, many conflicting biographical stories circulate to provide alternative places of birth (sometimes as far afield as Ulan Bator), and to extend his family lineage to Poland and the surname Krasna, which Marker also

in Chris Marker
Intercontinental mobility and migrant expectations in the nineteenth century
Eric Richards

she had met more than a dozen passengers on board who were ‘returning to N.Z. or Australia. They think no more of it than London.’ 3 In these words she captured three elements in emigrant history. One, of course, was the shrinkage of distance on this longest of all migrant routes. Another was the actual experience of going home but not staying. The third was the statistical tangle that such movements make in the measurement of emigrant flows. Even if such passengers as the Thurstons had been recorded we would not

in Emigrant homecomings
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David M. Bergeron

London’s industrious printers produced an avalanche of books in 1613, containing a stunning range of materials, from sermons to books on husbandry, music, poetry, and drama. These books link the public and private spheres of England’s culture, as they bridge the distance between Whitehall and the City of London. Here the public and private spheres intersect and resonate. Public publication leads to

in Shakespeare’s London 1613
Mirrored narratives of sanity and madness
Vicky Long

her goal of raising public consciousness about the plight of the insane, and closing her account by echoing Clifford Beers’s arguments for reform to protect the legal status of the mentally ill in America.85 However, both authors carefully distanced themselves from their fellow patients, distinguishing between their state of inner turmoil and distress, and the visible insanity which surrounded them. Grief and mental distress, both writers inferred, was a wholly different matter from the stereotypical insanity performed around them. They depicted fellow patients as

in Destigmatising mental illness?