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Tara Stubbs

Ireland was a rural idyll – even if this was largely due to a fantastic reading of the Irish countryside and its inhabitants. Jacqueline Genet points out that in fact ‘Ireland’s rural population declined throughout the whole latter part of the nineteenth century’ as a result of the potato famine and the consequent mass emigration, and that by 1961 ‘the rural population became the minority population in the country’;3 therefore, by the early twentieth century, country life might already have seemed in need of preservation. Genet argues that Irish writers first created

in American literature and Irish culture, 1910–55
Savage vibrations in ghost stories and D. H. Lawrence’s Kangaroo
Shelley Trower

displacement of populations through its participation in the mass emigrations to South Africa, Australia and other parts of the British Empire, following the decline of Cornwall’s mining industry, 6 so comparisons between Cornwall and overseas colonies need to be made cautiously. Cornwall is not simply a victim of colonisation; its own problematic, post-industrial economy meant that its population

in Rocks of nation
Government reform and Britain
Andrew Mansfield

Armenians under Suleiman I (r. 1666–94), Usbek paralleled the politico-economic damage caused by the loss of the Huguenots. As had occurred with the Armenians, Louis XIV’s desire to forge social and religious unity in France had led to the mass emigration of the Huguenots, many of whom were important merchants and artisans. The loss of Huguenot wealth and skills to Britain and the Dutch Republic injured the French economy and industry.47 Persia’s expulsion of the Armenians should have been viewed as a recent (historical) warning to France, as it brought down the Persian

in Ideas of monarchical reform
On hunger politics
Carl J. Griffin

/political economy readings of Bacon – Thomas Doubleday claimed in 1852 that as population ‘morbidly spreads’ the consequence was either mass emigration or ‘that worse sort of rebellions, which the wise Lord Bacon designates ‘rebellions of the belly’ 61 – economic historians appropriated Bacon’s phrase as in itself a total explanation. To Donald Barnes, writing in 1930, ‘hunger riots

in The politics of hunger
Tracing the origins of Swedish neutrality, 1814–1945
Christine Agius

(Rokkan, 1981: 66–8). Sweden was a ‘poverty-stricken nation’ (Stromberg, 1986: 99) and such conditions led to mass emigration between 1850 and 1930, mainly to America. 10 The rise of Pietism inspired a different political culture to develop, compared to continental Europe. Scandinavian Lutheranism was cemented during the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, influenced by the

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality
Abstract only
Katherine Fennelly

as massive rural depopulation due to emigration, disease, and starvation (Woodham-Smith 1962 : 411). Migration from the countryside into major towns and cities was common; the famine and the privations of its aftermath also led to mass emigration from Ireland to England and the United States. The famine had an impact on the supply of food to public asylums, as well as placing great strain on the asylum system in general. The main staple of the public asylum patient’s diet in Ireland was the potato. A typical diet consisted of oatmeal for breakfast, potatoes with

in An archaeology of lunacy
Abstract only
An introduction
David Lambert and Peter Merriman

, and the British Caribbean. 79 However, after 1860 most tropical migration was to plantation colonies where slavery had never existed or to work on the construction of railways and mines elsewhere. Our very long nineteenth century also saw changing debates about mass emigration from Britain: did it represent a loss of ‘manpower’ to the metropole or was it a vital safety valve during periods of economic downturn? Should movement to the settler colonies be guided by the imperial state or left to individuals and private organisations? 80 New regulatory measures were

in Empire and mobility in the long nineteenth century
International networks and the transmission of ideas
Mary Hilson

knowledge of agricultural co-operation outside Finland, but his examples were carefully chosen. In a lecture series delivered to university students in 1899 he described in some detail both the German Raiffeisen co-operatives and the French agricultural societies. However, his main source of inspiration came not from these ‘civilised nations’ (kulturländer), but from Ireland and Hungary. In Ireland’s ‘tragic history’ Gebhard saw direct parallels with the Finnish nationalists’ struggles against Russia, as well as with the problems of rural poverty and mass emigration.66 As

Abstract only
Crisis, capitalism and democracy
Sinéad Kennedy

_CoulterNagle_Printer3.indd 90 24/04/2015 16:36 A perfect storm: crisis, capitalism and democracy 91 than debt repayment. Journalist Fintan O’Toole summed up the spirit of the deal judiciously, writing: There is no sharing of the burden. There is no evidence of a single thought for the consequences of mass unemployment, mass emigration and war on the most vulnerable. There is no European solidarity. And there is not even a genuine sense of self-interest. The sadistic pleasures of punishment have trumped the sensible calculation that an Ireland enslaved by debt is not much use to

in Ireland under austerity
Michael Taft

investment into export-oriented activity. After the war, this policy was maintained despite its manifest failure, grinding the economy into long-term stagnation, poverty, unemployment and mass emigration by the 1950s.10 In the 1960s, the state opened up the economy to foreign direct investment. It was not intended that multi-nationals should displace indigenous enterprise. Rather, it was hoped Irish business would benefit from the expertise that multi-nationals and the global marketplace could bring: marketing, R&D, product development, traded wealth, export earnings, etc

in Ireland under austerity