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have to be addressed at some point. Similarly, the increasing inequality between people in different countries is one source of war, disturbance and mass migration that will also have to be alleviated if the hopes of a peaceful and prosperous world stand any chance of being realised in the twenty-first century. Summary Equality is a word capable of several different meanings. One can speak of ‘primary

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Dakar between garden city and cité-jardin

that characterised Howard’s vision and his famous sketches, he actually planned for class differences. The garden city was presented as a usable alternative to the contemporary overgrowth of urban industrial centres, which included mass migration from the countryside, the deterioration of sanitary conditions, slums, extreme poverty and crime. Each garden city – also called a

in Garden cities and colonial planning

National Identity (New York, 1972). 84 Curran and Ward, The Unknown Nation, p. 18. 85 This post-colonial context includes the United States, where the earliest appearance of the term (in Erikson’s wake) referred to the dislocations of mass migration

in Writing imperial histories
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Imperial legacies and post-imperial realities

development?” “Muslim invasion?” Emphasis on territorial defenses? Hungary also played a prominent role in the drama of mass migration from Africa and the Middle East which has shaken Europe since 2015. On this issue, Hungary took a much more defiant stance against the EU, engaging in a drawn-out conflict with mostly Western EU members over refugee admission

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
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Brighter European–Muslim–Jewish futures?

betterment of society as a whole, regardless of faith affiliation, took place after earthquakes hit in Haiti (2010) and Japan (2011) and during the famine in Somalia (2011).25 Muslim mass migration to Europe, 2015–16 As we approach the end of this study, we devote a few final words to evaluations of the immigration of hundreds of thousands of Muslims into Europe in 2015–16. Yigal Bin-Nun, whom we mentioned earlier (chapter 3), titled his article ‘The Arabs saved Europe’. Its opening words are no less surprising: ‘Arab immigration is the best thing that happened to Europe

in Haunted presents
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The mass migration of Catholic Irish was a key stimulant that forced indigenous Catholics to reappraise their relationship with Scottish and British society and come up with a strategy that would allow them to join in with the social, economic and imperial ambitions of the nation and the state. This study examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with

in Creating a Scottish Church
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Chartering English colonies on the American mainland in the seventeenth century

from the collision of different English legal cultures brought by migration into unavoidable proximity, legal cultures expressed on the one hand in the structures of authoritative socio-legal order planned by colonizing projectors, and on the other implicit in the massed migrations of actual settlers. Persistent variety, not a singular developmental logic, is the distinguishing characteristic

in Law, history, colonialism
Aspects of Irish return migration, 1600–1845

Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). Keyword access allows these letters to be searched on the basis of terms likely to be associated with return migration. 15 On the patterns of servant and paying passenger migration see M.S. Wokeck, Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America (University Park PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999). On the evolution and implications of the ‘Ulster custom’ see M.W. Dowling, Tenant Right and Agrarian Society in Ulster

in Emigrant homecomings
The southern African settler diaspora after decolonisation

decolonisation and the serial migrations spurred by the end of empire. Although there was nothing like the mass migration from Algeria, Mozambique and Angola at independence, many left Rhodesia in the 1970s and 1980s, often going to South Africa and other destinations including the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States in the 1980s and 1990s. Such multiple migrations, combined

in Cultures of decolonisation
Libya as Italy’s promised land, 1911–70

represented the first time the Italian nation state bowed to the needs of its poorer and weaker citizens. 11 In a period of mass migration the government claimed the ‘ spazio vitale ’, the lebensraum necessary to staunch what was regarded as a haemorrhage to the Americas of workers, lost to the Italian economy and to the fatherland. More subtle and plausible in this spectrum of significance assigned to the

in Imperial expectations and realities