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comparison. In Mamma Roma, Ettore is compared to Mantegna’s The Dead Christ and the wedding banquet of whores, pimps and thieves to The Last Supper of Da Vinci. In La ricotta, Stracci on the cross is likened to Christ on the cross, specifically a Christ on the cross in the paintings of the Deposition by Rosso Fiorentino and Pontormo, the low like the high, the profane like the sacred, the real like the image as if in a maze

in Montage

’. It’s only as he’s grappling with the body, cutting it down, that he recognises ‘garments […] I oft have seen’ and realises ‘it is Horatio my sweet son!’ There follow twenty lines of lament, framed as a series of questions (‘Who?’ (18), ‘What?’ (19), ‘why?’ (24), ‘why?’ (26), ‘what?’ (28), ‘How?’ (31)) directed at the ‘savage monster’, the ‘vild profaner’, the

in Doing Kyd
Religion, politeness, and reforming impulses in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century London

them’.1 Joining the constables were ‘sober Persons … ­willing to promote a Reformation of Manners’. This joint force ‘positioned themselves in divers places of the Fair, and took up a great Number of Persons, for profane Cursing and Swearing’. Many were put in the Bartholomew Close stocks, ‘where some Thousands came to see them’. A ‘great many lewd Women’, however, were not shamed so publicly and were instead taken to Bridewell.2 This concerted effort to apprehend dissolute people at Bartholomew Fair was motivated by a late-Stuart concern with public morality.3

in The ‘perpetual fair’
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component of the ethical health of the community. I have suggested that British engagement in Africa – far away, emotional, rooted in action (ritual, even), transcendent of profane politics – resonates with the idea of a sacred core of state activity. I have also suggested that Durkheim’s ideas have an affinity with Hegel’s depiction of the idea of the good state – interpreting Hegel’s good state as an aspiration, or an ideal, separate from, and reinforcement of, the more complex real state. Throughout, the idea of utopia has constantly arisen – utopia as a representation

in Britain and Africa under Blair

duty to establish what was right or wrong. 30 Ascham here referred to Grotius’s analysis of ‘ imperium circa sacra ’. Ascham’s understanding of the ‘judicial law’ as a civil law was consistent with the analysis of the supreme magistrate’s ‘imperative judgment’ on ‘sacred and profane matters’ made by Grotius in Chapter 5 of De Imperio , while the

in Order and conflict
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Enlightenment Islam

d’expériences innovantes, rebelles et intelligentes qui ont ouvert des voies, posé des jalons. Mais qui se souvient encore de ce passé? Exhumer les réflexions des libres-​penseurs, de théologiens curieux et de savants profanes qui ont cherché à doter la troisième religion monothéiste d’une approche rationnelle exigeante, en phase avec la réalité de leur temps, tel et le projet de cet ouvrage. (Chebel 2006: p. 7) (The idea behind this book is simple:  Muslim history preserves the memory of innovative, bold and erudite experiences, which opened up pathways and

in Secularism, Islam and public intellectuals in contemporary France
Lord Rochester andRestoration modernity

, the 1680 Poems on Several Occasions is ‘simply a scribal miscellany in typographical dress’. 33 Later print editions, often using 1680 as a copy-text, only introduced further confusion into the canon by incorporating items from less reliable manuscript sources and by removing or expurgating the more profane poems from the ‘Antwerp’ edition. Andrew Thorncome’s 1685 imprint, for instance, subtracts nine poems from 1680 and adds five others, none of which are likely authentic. What was long thought to be the best early Rochester , Jacob Tonson’s 1691 edition

in Aesthetics of contingency

authority as messengers of God.3 The explication of this choice in their farewell sermons moved the Bartholomeans to examine how they saw themselves, their godly constituents, and the profane world ranged against them. I The ministers ejected from the Church of England in 1662 may, in many cases, have associated with one another during the Interregnum, but these informal networks did not amount to an organised party within the Church, nor were they united by a common manifesto. Even those older Bartholomeans who had signed one of the Testimonies of 1648 or participated in

in Black Bartholomew’s Day
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Global kosher and halal markets

logic in this type of analysis is that religion, on the one hand, and dietary understandings and practices, on the other hand, are inseparable forces shaping human cosmology. In seminal studies of food and religion/​cosmology by Lévi-​Strauss (1968), Émile Durkheim (1995) and Mary Douglas (1972, 1975, 2002), binaries such as edible/​inedible, sacred/​ profane, and raw/​cooked are vital. Barthes writes that to eat is a behaviour that develops beyond its own ends and thus it is a sign vital to individual, group, and national identities (1975:  72). Simultaneously, basic

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Negotiating confessional difference in early modern Christmas celebrations

emphasis were sufficient to allow Christmas celebrations to continue in England throughout the post-​ Reformation period, the holiday was simultaneously under attack by radical reformers, especially in Scotland, the Netherlands, and reportedly in Calvin’s Geneva. The primary reasons for opposition to the celebration of Christmas by the godly were first, that there was no biblical precedent for the celebration of Christ’s birth on December 25; second, that the holiday had unabashed pagan roots; and third, that Christmas mirth was profane and encouraged lewd behavior. This

in Forms of faith