In this sense, media technologies constitute the human
and human perception. Media technologies are, as Marshall McLuhan
put it, ‘extensions’ of man and engender new sense
ratios ( 2001 ). Early
phonographic listeners were able to hear through the noise of
recording and find it flawless in a way we could not do today. As
The nurses’ role in wound management in civilian hospitals during the Second World War
sources are a group of 19 interviews, collected by the author
during 2008–10. These former nurses trained in UK hospitals during the
‘Those maggots – they did a wonderful job’
1930s and 1940s. Pseudonyms are used to preserve their confidentiality.
Sound recordings are located at the United Kingdom Centre for the History
of Nursing and Midwifery (UKCHNM).
2 Jocalyn Lawler, Behind the Screens: Nursing, Somology, and the Problem of
the Body (Melbourne, Churchill Livingstone, 1991).
3 See, for example, V. R. Yow, Recording Oral History: A Practical Guide for
of practical matters of cinematography, sound recording and editing, as well as regarding more abstract issues of an epistemological or aesthetic nature, their ultimate intentions and, importantly, their ethical posture regarding the subjects.
Geertz ( 1988 ), 17–19.
people who had not reached adulthood in 1971.
7 Mohammed Israel, interviewed 25 February 2006 by Jamil Iqbal for Swadhinata
Trust and University of Surrey, ‘Oral History Project’. The EPLF was dissolved when
the broader Birmingham Action Committee was established.
8 Interviewed by Caroline Adams, 19 March 1998, tape recording (Tower Hamlets
Local History Library).
10 Sheikh Mannan, interviewed by Caroline Adams, 19 March 1998, tape recording,
and by the author, 30 March 2002.
11 Faruque Ahmed, Bengal Politics in Britain: Logic, Dynamics and Disharmony (North
Each entry in the Gazetteer represents one household schedule, completed on
census night 1911. A total of five hundred schedules are listed. They are arranged
geographically across England: by region, county (or London borough), town or
city, and by neighbourhood.
The information given here is just as it appears on the schedule, recording who
was present on census night (usually family members, plus any visitors, boarders
and servants). Individual suffrage affiliations for spring 1911 have been added,
where they are known.
The entries fall under
, Midlands, Wales and South-West England,
London, East and South-East England.
Beginning again: the twenty-first century
Scard. For Horace Trubridge (2014) Smith’s leadership had seen the Union
‘better established in the music industry now than it has ever been’.
It is important to place this in the wider context of the music industries
during the same period. Each of the major music industries (publishing,
live, and especially recording) attempted to get closer to Government as
they increasingly sought policies that, they hoped, would help them shore
those modes of representation designated as ‘realist’. There are other categories of
significance, but these two have a particularly strong application across
nearly all of media culture and they bear directly on questions both
about media production and media consumption.
FORMAL RELATIONS: SOUND, IMAGE, WRITING
Sound recording (sometimes called ‘phonography’) comes just a few
decades after photography in the history of the various ways of achieving a mechanical, electrical, electronic and now digital ‘record’, ways
that constitute the
We can never close our ears and sound has the ability to infiltrate our
minds and take us by surprise.
Prior to the invention of recording
technology, sound was elusive: musical notation may have developed to
‘capture’ composition, but noise could only be described in
terms of language. This is one reason that, for example, the
‘Rebel Yell’ war cry of
Constructing the televisual pop community in the GDR
the term ‘dance music’
(Tanzmusik) well into the mid-1970s; instead of ‘band’, GDR media
attempted to impose the term ‘dance ensemble’ (Tanzensemble or
Tanzcombo); instead of ‘disc jockey’, the ridiculously complicated term
‘recording entertainer’ (Schallplattenunterhalter) was propagated in
official documents and broadcasts.
The GDR radio broadcasting networks were the most significant
producers of popular music – quantitatively because they had the
highest output among the three institutions (the radio networks, the
Amiga label, television broadcasts
issue facing Scard was dealing with the implications of the
MMC ruling. This was a multifaceted problem and one over which the Union
had only limited influence. Not only was it no longer able to allocate the ‘phonographic funds’ across the music profession as a whole, it was initially suggested that responsibility for distributing the funds to individual musicians be
taken away from the Union, as the report recommended that ‘all performers
should receive equitable remuneration, directly paid by PPL, specific to each
recording’s use in broadcasting or public